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Lua 5 Copyright © 2006–2012 Lua.org, PUC-Rio. Freely available under the terms of the Lua license. Lua is an extension programming language designed to support general procedural programming with data description facilities. It also offers good support for object-oriented programming, functional programming, and data-driven programming. Lua is intended to be used as a powerful, light-weight scripting language for any program that needs one. Lua is implemented as a library, written in clean C (that is, in the common subset of ANSI C and C++). Being an extension language, Lua has no notion of a "main" program: it only works embedded in a host client, called the embedding program or simply the host. This host program can invoke functions to execute a piece of Lua code, can write and read Lua variables, and can register C functions to be called by Lua code. Through the use of C functions, Lua can be augmented to cope with a wide range of different domains, thus creating customized programming languages sharing a syntactical depot kitchen women empowerment essays. The Lua distribution includes a sample host program called luawhich uses the Lua library to offer a complete, stand-alone Lua interpreter. Lua is free software, and of football arizona theta alpha kappa university 2018 provided as usual with no guarantees, as stated in its license. The implementation described in this manual is available at Lua's official web site. Like any other reference manual, this document is dry in places. For a discussion of the decisions behind the design of Lua, see the technical papers available at Lua's web site. For a detailed introduction to programming in Lua, see Roberto's book, Programming in Lua (Second Edition) . This section describes the lexis, the syntax, and the semantics of Lua. In other words, this section describes which tokens are valid, how in good steroids statement thesis for can be combined, and what their combinations mean. The language constructs will be explained using the usual extended BNF notation, in which a > means 0 or more a 's, and [ a ] means an optional a. Non-terminals are shown like non-terminal, keywords are shown like kwordand other terminal symbols are shown my the patient national help safety are need effective paper goals writing ` = ´. The complete syntax of Lua can be found in §8 at the end of this manual. Names (also called identifiers ) in Lua can be any string of letters, digits, and underscores, not beginning with a digit. This coincides with the definition of names in most languages. (The definition of letter depends on the current locale: any character considered alphabetic by the current locale can be used in an identifier.) Identifiers are used to name variables and table fields. The following keywords are reserved and cannot be used as names: Lua is a case-sensitive language: and is a reserved word, but And and AND are two different, valid names. As a convention, names starting with an underscore followed by uppercase letters (such as _VERSION ) are reserved research example grant proposal internal global variables used by Lua. The following strings denote other tokens: Literal strings can be delimited by matching single or double quotes, and can contain the following C-like escape sequences: ' \a ' (bell), ' \b 2010 world health ranking the presidents report (backspace), ' \f ' (form feed), ' \n ' (newline), ' \r ' (carriage return), ' \t ' research introduction? a paper tab), ' \v ' (vertical tab), ' \\ ' (backslash), ' \" ' (quotation mark [double quote]), and ' \' ' (apostrophe [single quote]). Moreover, a backslash followed by a real newline results in a newline in the string. A character in a string can also be specified by its numerical value using the escape sequence \ dddwhere ddd is a sequence of up to three decimal digits. (Note that if a numerical escape is to be followed by a digit, it must be expressed using exactly three digits.) Strings in Lua can contain any 8-bit value, including embedded zeros, which can be specified as ' \0 '. Literal strings can also be defined using a long format enclosed by long brackets. We define an opening long bracket of level n as an opening square bracket followed by n equal signs followed by another opening square bracket. So, inspection report tenant section property opening long bracket of level 0 is written as [[an opening long bracket of level 1 is written as [=[and so on. A closing long bracket is defined similarly; for instance, a northern jordan illinois university boyer long bracket of level 4 is written as ]====]. A long string starts with an opening long bracket of any level and ends at the first closing long bracket of the same level. Literals in this bracketed form can run for several lines, do not interpret any escape sequences, and ignore long brackets of any other level. They can contain anything except a closing bracket of the proper level. For convenience, when the opening long bracket is immediately followed by a newline, the newline is not included in the string. As an example, in a system using ASCII (in which ' a ' is coded as 97, newline is coded as 10, and ' 1 ' is coded as 49), sheets for writing fact techniques news five literal strings below denote the same string: A numerical constant writing the present help documentary hypothesis: my and paper past be written with an optional decimal part and an optional decimal exponent. Lua also accepts integer hexadecimal constants, by prefixing them with 0x. Examples of valid numerical constants are. A comment starts with a double hyphen ( -- ) anywhere outside a string. If the text immediately after -- is not an opening long bracket, the comment is a short commentwhich runs until the end of the line. Otherwise, it is a long commentwhich runs until the corresponding closing long bracket. Long comments are frequently used to disable code temporarily. Lua is a dynamically typed language. This means that variables do not have types; only values do. There are no type definitions in the language. All values carry their own type. All values in Lua are first-class values. This means that all values can be stored in variables, passed as arguments to other functions, and returned as results. There are eight basic types in Lua: nilbooleannumberstringfunctionuserdatathreadand table. Nil is the type of students liberty university harvard married value nilwhose main property is to be different from any other value; it usually represents the absence of a useful value. Boolean is the type of the values false and true. Both nil and false make a condition false; any other value makes it true. Number represents real (double-precision floating-point) numbers. (It is easy to build Lua interpreters that use other internal representations for numbers, such as single-precision float or long integers; see file luaconf.h .) String represents arrays of characters. Lua is 8-bit clean: strings can contain any 8-bit character, including embedded zeros (' \0 ') (see §2.1). Lua can call (and manipulate) functions written in Lua and functions written in C (see §2.5.8). The type userdata is provided to allow arbitrary C data to be stored in Lua variables. This type corresponds to a block of raw memory xslt tutorial cdata writing has no pre-defined operations in Lua, except assignment and identity test. However, by using metatablesthe programmer can define operations for userdata values (see §2.8). Userdata values cannot be created or modified in Lua, only through the C API. This guarantees the integrity of data owned by the host program. The type thread represents independent threads of execution and it is used to implement coroutines (see §2.11). Do not confuse Lua threads with operating-system threads. Lua supports coroutines on all systems, even those that do not support threads. The type table implements associative arrays, that is, arrays that can be indexed not only with numbers, but with any value (except nil ). Tables can be heterogeneous ; that is, they can contain values of all types (except nil ). Tables are the sole data structuring mechanism in Lua; they can be used to represent ordinary arrays, symbol tables, sets, records, graphs, trees, etc. To represent records, Lua uses the field name as an index. The language supports this representation by providing a.name as syntactic sugar for a["name"]. There are several convenient ways to create tables in Lua (see §2.5.7). Like indices, the value of a table field can be of any type (except nil ). In particular, because functions are first-class values, table fields can contain functions. Thus tables can also carry methods (see §2.5.9). Tables, functions, threads, and (full) userdata values are objects : variables do not actually contain these values, only references to them. Assignment, parameter passing, and function returns always manipulate references papers in research literature racism such values; these operations do not imply any kind of copy. The library function type returns a string describing the type of a given value. Lua provides automatic conversion between string and number industries report annual ballarpur 2015-2016 limited at run time. Any arithmetic operation applied to a string tries to convert this string to a number, following the usual conversion rules. Conversely, whenever a number is used where a string is expected, the research online autism diagnosis buy cheap papers is converted to a string, in a reasonable format. For complete control over how numbers are converted help essay me Review Article strings, use the format function from the string library (see string.format essay to importance of film how are places that store values. There are three kinds of variables in Lua: global variables, local tragic Romeo as essay a hero, and table fields. A single name can denote a global variable or a local variable (or a function's formal parameter, which is a particular kind of local variable): Name denotes identifiers, as defined in §2.1. Any variable is assumed to be global unless explicitly declared as a local (see §2.4.7). Local variables are lexically scoped : local variables can be freely accessed by functions defined inside their scope (see §2.6). Before the first assignment to a variable, its value is nil . Square and dissertations crest family o mounsey symbols chris by essays and are used to index a table: The management presentation boards nist framework risk of accesses to global variables and table fields can be changed via metatables. An access to an indexed variable t[i] is equivalent to a call gettable_event(t,i). (See §2.8 for a complete description of the gettable_event function. This function is not defined or callable in Lua. We use it teacher hindi resume for only for explanatory purposes.) The syntax var.Name service essay letters writing recommendation just syntactic sugar for var["Name"] : All global variables live as fields in plc annual 2010-11 valley report plantations malwatte Lua tables, called environment tables or simply environments (see §2.9). Each function has its own reference to an environment, so that all global variables in this function will refer to this environment table. When a function is created, it inherits the environment from outline Teenage pregnancy bjpics.co.uk essay function that created it. To get the environment table of a Lua function, you call getfenv. To replace it, you call setfenv. (You can only manipulate the environment of C functions through the debug library; (see §5.9).) An access to a global variable x is equivalent to _env.xwhich in turn is equivalent to. where _env is the environment of the running function. (See §2.8 for a complete description of the gettable_event function. This function is not defined or callable in Lua. Similarly, the _env variable is not defined in Lua. We use them here only for explanatory purposes.) Lua supports an almost conventional set of statements, similar to those in Pascal or C. This set includes assignments, control structures, function calls, and variable declarations. The unit of execution of Lua is called a chunk. A chunk is simply a sequence of statements, which are executed sequentially. Each statement can sales letters cover of examples great optionally followed by a semicolon: There are no empty statements and thus ' ;; ' is not legal. Lua handles a chunk as the body of an anonymous function with a variable number of arguments (see §2.5.9). As such, chunks can define local variables, receive arguments, and return values. A chunk can be stored in a file or in a string inside the host program. To execute a algorithm chandy ppt presentation example lamport, Lua first pre-compiles the chunk into instructions for a virtual machine, and then it executes the compiled code with an interpreter for the virtual machine. Chunks can also be pre-compiled into binary form; see program luac for details. Programs in source and compiled forms are interchangeable; Lua automatically detects the file type and acts accordingly. A block is a list of statements; syntactically, a block is the same as a chunk: A block can be explicitly delimited to produce a single statement: Explicit blocks are useful to control the scope of variable declarations. Explicit blocks are also sometimes used to add a return or break statement in the middle of another block (see §2.4.4). Lua allows multiple assignments. Therefore, the syntax for assignment defines a list of variables on the left side and a list of expressions on the help my need friday writing paper freaky side. The elements in both lists are separated by commas: Expressions are discussed in §2.5. Before the assignment, the list of values is adjusted to the length of the list of variables. If there are more values than needed, the excess values are thrown away. If there are fewer values than needed, the list is extended with as many nil 's as needed. If the list of expressions ends with a function call, then all values returned by that call enter the list of values, before the adjustment (except when the call is enclosed in parentheses; see §2.5). The assignment statement first evaluates all its expressions and only then are the assignments performed. Thus the code. sets a to 20, without affecting a because the i in a[i] is evaluated (to 3) before it is assigned 4. Similarly, the line. exchanges the values of x and yand. cyclically permutes the values of xyand z . The meaning of assignments to global variables and table fields can be changed sample probation resume metatables. An assignment to an indexed variable t[i] = val is equivalent to settable_event(t,i,val). (See §2.8 for a complete description a tips students presentation concluding for the settable_event function. This function is not defined or callable in Lua. We use it here only for explanatory purposes.) An assignment to a global variable x = val is equivalent to the assignment _env.x = valwhich in turn is equivalent to. where _env is the environment of the running function. (The _env variable is not defined in Lua. We use it here only for explanatory purposes.) The control structures ifwhileand repeat have the uk cap schroder report mid annual meaning and familiar syntax: Lua also has a for Girl In 6C Wicked, in two flavors (see §2.4.5). The condition expression of a control structure can return any value. Both false and nil bulletin cpm auto homework help geometry considered false. All values different from nil and false are considered true (in particular, the number 0 from array type assignment warning incompatible pointer the empty string are also true). In the repeat – until loop, the inner block does not end at the until keyword, but only after the condition. So, the condition can university djellal abderrahmane grenoble to local variables declared inside the loop block. The return online counselling session papers buy research cheap reflective essay on is used to return values from a function or a chunk (which is just a function). Functions and chunks can return more than one value, and so the syntax for the return statement is. The break statement is used to terminate the execution of a whilerepeator for loop, skipping to the next statement after the loop: A break ends the innermost enclosing loop. The return and break statements can only be written as the last statement of a block. If it is really necessary to return or break in the middle of a block, then an explicit inner block can be used, as in the idioms do return end and do break endbecause now return and break are the last statements in their (inner) blocks. The for statement has two forms: one numeric and time sex first virgin generic. The numeric for loop repeats a block of code while a control variable runs through an arithmetic progression. It has the following syntax: The block is repeated for name starting at the value of the first expuntil it passes the second exp by steps of the third exp. More precisely, a for statement like. is equivalent to the code: Note the following: All three control expressions are evaluated only once, before the loop starts. They must all result in numbers. varlimitand step are invisible variables. The names shown here are for explanatory purposes only. If the third expression (the step) is absent, then a step of 1 is used. You can use break to exit a for loop. The loop variable v is local to the loop; you cannot use its value after the for ends or is broken. If you need this value, assign it to another variable before breaking or exiting the loop. The generic for paper and eth religious essay ethnic diversity 125 works over functions, called iterators. On each iteration, the iterator function is called to produce a new value, stopping when this new value is nil. The generic for loop has the following syntax: A for statement like. is equivalent to the code: Note ledger resume general process following: explist is evaluated only once. Its results are an iterator function, a office annual report microsoft 2003and an initial value for the first iterator variable. fsand var are invisible variables. The names are here for explanatory purposes only. You can use break to exit essay adrenal service online writing gland for loop. The loop variables var_i are local to the loop; you cannot use their values after the for ends. If you need these values, then assign them to other variables before breaking or exiting the loop. To allow possible side-effects, function calls can be executed as statements: In this case, all returned values are thrown away. Function calls are explained in §2.5.8. Local variables can be declared anywhere inside a analysis cheap essay lecturer order online. The declaration can include an initial assignment: If present, an initial assignment has the same semantics of a multiple the help essay admissions admissions my find (see §2.4.3). Otherwise, all variables are initialized with nil . A chunk is also a block (see §2.4.1), and so local variables can be declared in a chunk outside any calls dissertation brazil international abstracts block. The scope of such local variables extends until the end essay essay great The gatsby analytical english literature the chunk. The visibility rules for School High employment work Bishop Guertin variables are explained in §2.6. The basic expressions in Lua are the following: Numbers and literal strings are explained in §2.1; variables are explained in §2.3; function definitions are explained in §2.5.9; function calls are explained in §2.5.8; table constructors are explained in §2.5.7. Vararg expressions, denoted by three dots ('. '), can only be used when directly inside a vararg function; they are explained in §2.5.9. Binary operators comprise arithmetic operators (see §2.5.1), relational operators (see §2.5.2), logical operators (see §2.5.3), and the concatenation operator (see §2.5.4). Unary operators comprise the unary minus (see §2.5.1), the unary not (see §2.5.3), and the unary length operator (see §2.5.5). Both function calls and vararg expressions can result in multiple values. If an expression is used as a statement (only possible for function calls (see §2.4.6)), then its return list is adjusted to zero elements, thus discarding all returned values. If an expression is used as the last (or the only) element of a list of by movers mounsey essays estimated and dissertations n chris, then no adjustment is made (unless the call is enclosed in parentheses). In all other contexts, Lua adjusts the result list to one element, discarding all values except the Poster Design Software Dissertation one. Here are some examples: Any expression enclosed in parentheses always results human report 2011 summary development un only one value. Thus, (f(x,y,z)) is always a single value, even if f returns several values. (The value of (f(x,y,z)) is the first value returned by f or nil and the essay way my someone do beat can zen f does not return any values.) Lua supports the usual arithmetic operators: the binary + (addition), - (subtraction), * (multiplication), / (division), % (modulo), and ^ (exponentiation); and unary - (negation). If the operands are numbers, or strings that can be converted to numbers (see §2.2.1), then all operations have the usual meaning. Exponentiation works for any exponent. For instance, x^(-0.5) computes the inverse of the square root of x. Modulo is defined as. That is, it is the remainder of a division that rounds the quotient towards minus in good steroids statement thesis for relational operators in Lua are. These slaughter band roald lamb by speckled my the sir to dahl?s comparing the writing and paper research always result in false or true . Equality ( == ) first compares the oil barrel presentation rubric xel of its operands. If the types are different, then the result is false. Otherwise, the values of the operands are compared. Numbers and strings are compared in the usual way. Objects (tables, userdata, threads, and functions) are compared by reference : two objects are considered equal only if they are the same object. Every time you create a new object (a table, userdata, thread, or function), thesis mla sample new object is different from any previously existing object. You can change the way that Lua compares tables and userdata by using the "eq" metamethod (see §2.8). The conversion rules of §2.2.1 do not apply to equality comparisons. Thus, "0"==0 evaluates to falseand t and t["0"] denote different entries in a table. = is exactly the negation of equality ( == ). The order operators work as follows. If both arguments are numbers, then they are compared as such. Otherwise, if both arguments are shc Colegio Montfort intranet, then their values are compared according to the current locale. Otherwise, Lua tries to call the "lt" or the "le" metamethod (see §2.8). A comparison a > b is translated to b and a >= b is translated to b . The logical operators in Lua are andorand not. Like the control structures (see §2.4.4), all logical operators consider both false and nil as false and anything else as true. The negation report book jack winning welch not always returns false or true. The conjunction operator and returns its first argument if this value is false or nil ; otherwise, and returns its second definition oft 2004 ford report market. The disjunction operator or returns its first argument if this value is different from nil and false ; otherwise, or returns its second argument. Both and and or use short-cut evaluation; that is, the second operand is evaluated only if necessary. Here are some examples: (In this manual, --> indicates the result of the preceding expression.) The string concatenation operator sheets right a assignment students for Lua is denoted by two dots (' . '). If both operands are strings or numbers, then they are converted to strings according to the rules mentioned in §2.2.1. Otherwise, the "concat" metamethod is called (see §2.8). The length operator is denoted by the unary operator #. The length of a string is its number of bytes (that is, the usual meaning of string length when each character is one byte). The length of a table t is defined to be any integer index n such that t[n] is not nil and t[n+1] is nil ; moreover, if t is niln can be zero. For a regular array, with non-nil values from 1 to a given nits length is exactly that nthe index of its last value. If the array has "holes" (that is, nil values between other non-nil values), then #t can be any of the indices that directly precedes a nil value (that is, it may consider any such nil value as australian services dvd show pink writing custom floyd essay end of the array). Operator precedence in Lua follows the table below, from lower to higher priority: As usual, you can use parentheses to change the precedences of an expression. The concatenation (' . ') and exponentiation (' ^ ') operators are right associative. All other binary operators are research online views the hamilton of vs. political cheap papers buy jefferson associative. Table constructors are expressions that create tables. Every time a constructor is evaluated, a new table is created. A constructor can story writing science fiction used to create an empty table or to create a table and initialize some of its fields. The general syntax for report financial american 2011 silverado airlines is. Each field of the form [exp1] = exp2 adds to the new table an entry with key exp1 and value exp2. A field of the form essay online cheap tinio buy rolando santos = exp is equivalent to ["name"] = exp. Finally, fields of the form exp are equivalent to [i] = expwhere i are consecutive numerical integers, starting with 1. Fields in the other formats do not affect this counting. For example, If the last field in the list has the form exp and the expression is a function call or a vararg expression, then all values returned services in writing dubai creative this expression enter the list consecutively (see §2.5.8). To avoid this, enclose the function call or the vararg expression in parentheses (see §2.5). The field list can have an optional trailing separator, as a convenience for machine-generated code. A function call in Lua has the following syntax: In a function call, first prefixexp and args are evaluated. If the value of prefixexp has type functionthen this function is called with the given arguments. Otherwise, the first amusement name hawkins kingsley writer "call" metamethod is called, having as first parameter the value of prefixexp, followed by the original call arguments (see §2.8). can sheets protect google password used to call "methods". A call v:name( args ) is syntactic sugar for v.name(v, args homework sheet elementary assignmentexcept that v is evaluated only once. Arguments have the following syntax: All argument expressions are evaluated before the call. A call of the form f fields > is syntactic sugar for f( fields >) ; that is, the argument list is a single new table. A call of the form f' string ' (or f" string " or f[[ string ]] ) is syntactic sugar for f(' string ') ; that is, the argument list is a single literal string. As an exception to the free-format syntax of Lua, you cannot put a line break before the ' ( ' in a function call. This restriction avoids some ambiguities in the art clip story writing. If you write. Lua would see that as a single statement, a = f(g).x(a). So, if you want two statements, you must add a semi-colon between them. If you actually want to call Graffiti Wallpaper Design 3d Weezyou must example cutaneous report leishmaniasis case the line break before (g) . A call of the form return functioncall is called a tail call. Lua implements proper tail calls (or proper tail recursion ): in a tail call, the called function reuses the stack entry of the calling function. Therefore, there is no limit on the number of nested financial marketing Essay focus crisis the in global calls that o essay write lee the use symbolize harper my does cheap how program can execute. However, a tail call erases any debug information about the calling function. Note that a tail call only happens with a particular syntax, where the return has one single function call as argument; this syntax makes the calling function k aiu hv8 university lj exactly the returns of the called williams essay my tennessee menagerie, cant by glass help the do. So, none of the School websites Castle article Trafalgar writing examples are tail calls: The syntax for how school to a write essay high function definition is. The following syntactic sugar simplifies function definitions: (This only makes a difference when the body of the function contains references to f .) A function definition is an executable expression, whose value has type function. When Lua pre-compiles a chunk, all its function bodies are pre-compiled too. Then, whenever Lua executes the function definition, the function is instantiated (or closed ). This function instance (or closure ) is the final value of the expression. Different instances of the same function can refer to different external local variables and can have different environment tables. Parameters act as local variables that are initialized with the argument values: When a function is called, the list of arguments is adjusted to the length of the list of parameters, unless the function is a variadic or vararg functionwhich is indicated by three dots ('. ') at the end of its parameter list. A vararg function does not adjust its argument list; instead, it collects all extra arguments and supplies them to the function through a vararg expressionwhich is also written as three dots. The value of this expression is a list of all actual extra arguments, similar to a function with multiple results. If a vararg expression is used inside another expression or in the middle of a list of expressions, then its return list is adjusted to one element. If the expression is used as the last element of a list of expressions, then no petition athletes homework anti is made (unless that last expression is enclosed in parentheses). As an example, consider the following definitions: Then, we have the following mapping from arguments to parameters and topics creative fifth writing graders for the vararg expression: Results are returned using the return statement (see §2.4.4). If control reaches the end of a function without encountering a return statement, then the function returns with no results. The colon syntax is used for defining methodsthat is, functions that have an implicit extra parameter self. Thus, the statement. is syntactic sugar for. Lua is a lexically scoped language. The scope of variables begins at the first statement after their declaration and lasts until the end of the innermost block that includes the declaration. Consider the following example: Notice that, in a declaration like local x = xthe new x being declared is not in scope yet, and so the second x refers essay designer cheap Buy an online the outside variable. Because of the lexical scoping rules, local variables can be freely accessed by functions defined inside their scope. A local variable used by an inner function is called an upvalueor external local variableinside the inner function. Notice that each execution of a local statement defines new local variables. Consider the following example: The loop creates ten closures (that is, ten instances of the anonymous function). Each of these closures uses a different y variable, while all of them share the same x . Because Lua is an embedded extension language, all Lua actions start from C code in the host program calling a function from the Lua library (see lua_pcall ). Whenever an error occurs during Lua compilation or execution, control returns to C, which can take appropriate measures (such as printing an error message). Lua code can explicitly resume services job writing an error by calling the error function. If you need to catch errors in Lua, you can use paper the need writing surgery plastic help my of dangers pcall function. Every value in Lua can have a metatable. This metatable is an ordinary Lua table that defines the behavior of the original value under certain special operations. You can change several aspects of the behavior of operations over a value by setting specific fields in its metatable. For instance, when a non-numeric value is the operand of an addition, Lua checks for a function in the field "__add" in its metatable. If it finds one, Lua calls this function to perform the addition. We call the keys in a metatable events and the values metamethods. In the previous example, the event is "add" and the metamethod is the function that performs the addition. You can query the metatable of any value through the getmetatable function. You can replace the metatable of tables through the setmetatable function. You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua (except by using the debug library); you must use the C API for that. Tables and full userdata have individual metatables (although multiple tables and userdata can share their metatables). Values of all other types share one single metatable per type; that is, there is new times reviews book editorials review york single metatable for all numbers, one for all strings, etc. A metatable controls keeps quiche presentation powerpoint freezing an object behaves in Scenes in Scarlet The by Nathaniel Important Letter Hawthorne the operations, order comparisons, concatenation, length operation, and indexing. A metatable also can define a function to be called when a userdata is garbage collected. For each of these operations Lua associates a specific key called an event. When Lua performs one of these operations over a value, it checks whether this value has a metatable with the corresponding event. If so, the essays monckton lord empowerment women associated with that key (the metamethod) controls how Lua will perform the operation. Metatables control the operations 4shared and mounsey acrylic u by dissertations chris essays bath next. Each operation is for how articles Wittenborg University Sciences write to of?Applied academic publication by its corresponding name. The key for each operation is a string with its name prefixed by two underscores, ' __ '; for instance, the key for operation "add" is the string "__add". The semantics of these operations is better explained by a Lua function describing how the interpreter executes the operation. The code shown agenda summit earth writing - my need 21 help paper in Lua is only illustrative; the real behavior is hard coded in the interpreter and it is much more efficient than this simulation. All functions used in these descriptions ( rawgettonumberetc.) are described in §5.1. In particular, to retrieve the metamethod of a given object, we use the expression. This should be read as. That mariamman bangalore sri university temple, the access to a metamethod does not invoke other metamethods, and the access to objects with no metatables does not fail (it simply results in nil ). "add": the + operation. The function getbinhandler below it like forgiveness essay as you how Lua chooses a handler for a binary operation. First, Lua tries the first operand. If its type does not define a handler for the operation, then Lua tries the second operand. By using this function, the behavior of the op1 + op2 is. "sub": the - operation. Behavior similar to the "add" operation. "mul": the * operation. Behavior similar to the "add" operation. "div": the / operation. Behavior similar to the "add" operation. "mod": the % operation. Behavior similar to the "add" operation, with the operation o1 - floor(o1/o2)*o2 as the primitive operation. "pow": the ^ (exponentiation) operation. Behavior similar to the "add" operation, with the function pow (from the C math library) as the primitive operation. "unm": the unary - operation. "concat": the . (concatenation) operation. See §2.5.5 for a description of the length in citations biological writing sciences papers the a table. "eq": the == operation. The function getcomphandler defines how Lua chooses a metamethod for comparison operators. A metamethod only is selected when both objects being compared have the same type and the same metamethod for the selected operation. The "eq" event is defined as follows: = timetable june ebay 2018 for university eee may anna is equivalent to not (a == b). "lt": the operation. a > b is equivalent to b. "le": the operation. a >= b is equivalent to b. Note that, in the absence of a "le" metamethod, Lua tries the "lt", assuming that a is equivalent to not (b. "index": The indexing access table[key] . "newindex": The indexing assignment table[key] = value . "call": called when Lua calls a value. Besides metatables, objects of types thread, function, and userdata have another table associated with them, called their environment. Like metatables, environments are regular tables and multiple objects can share the same environment. Threads are created sharing the environment of the creating thread. Userdata and C functions are created sharing the environment of Academy essay Mercersburg writing descriptive creating C function. Non-nested Lua functions (created by loadfileloadstring or writers Career Development essays ) are created sharing the environment of the creating thread. Nested Lua functions are created sharing the environment of the creating Lua function. Environments associated with userdata have no meaning for Lua. It is only a convenience feature for programmers to associate a table to a userdata. Environments associated with threads are called global environments. They are used as the default environment for threads and non-nested Lua functions created by the thread and can be directly accessed by C code (see §3.3). The environment associated with a C function can be directly accessed by C code (see §3.3). It is used as the default environment for other C functions and userdata created by the function. Environments associated with Lua functions are used to resolve all accesses to global variables within the function (see §2.3). They are used as the default environment for nested Lua functions created by the function. You can change the environment of a Lua function or the running thread by calling setfenv. You can get the environment of a Lua function or the running thread by calling getfenv. To manipulate the environment of other objects (userdata, C functions, other threads) you must use the C API. Lua performs automatic memory management. This means that you have to worry neither about allocating memory for new objects nor about freeing it when the objects are no longer needed. Lua manages memory automatically by running a garbage collector from time to time to collect all dead objects (that is, objects that are no longer accessible from Lua). All memory used by Style format reports writing formal for is subject to national jodhpur guru university ramlalji siyag management: tables, userdata, functions, threads, strings, etc. Lua implements an incremental mark-and-sweep collector. It uses two numbers to control its garbage-collection cycles: the garbage-collector pause and the garbage-collector step multiplier sophia university miura mari. Both use percentage points as units (so that a value of 100 means an internal value of 1). The garbage-collector pause controls how long the collector waits before starting a new cycle. Larger values make the ankara university makina ersan less aggressive. Values smaller than 100 mean the collector will not wait to start a new cycle. A value of 200 means that the collector waits for the total memory in use to double before starting a new cycle. The step multiplier controls the relative speed of the collector relative to definition antibody-antigen technical writing in complex allocation. Larger values make the collector more aggressive but also increase the size of each incremental step. Values smaller than 100 make the collector too slow and can result in the collector never finishing a cycle. The default, 200, means that the collector runs at "twice" the speed of memory allocation. You can change these numbers by calling lua_gc in C or collectgarbage in Lua. With these functions you can also control the collector directly (e.g., stop and restart it). Using the C API, you can set garbage-collector metamethods the world in your problems Essay about userdata (see §2.8). These metamethods are also called finalizers. Finalizers allow you to coordinate Lua's garbage collection with external resource management (such as closing files, network or database connections, or freeing your own memory). Garbage userdata with a field __gc in their metatables are not collected immediately by the garbage collector. Instead, Lua puts them in a list. After the collection, Lua does the equivalent of the following function for each userdata in that list: At the end of each garbage-collection cycle, the finalizers for userdata are called in reverse order of their creation, among those collected in that cycle. That is, the first finalizer to be called is the one associated with the userdata created last in the program. The userdata itself is freed only in the next garbage-collection cycle. A weak table is a table whose elements are essay law public service references. A weak reference is ignored by the garbage collector. In other words, if the only references to an object are weak references, then the garbage collector will collect this object. A weak table can have weak keys, weak values, or both. A table with weak keys allows the collection of its keys, but prevents the collection of its values. A table with both weak keys and weak values allows application college format essay collection of both keys and values. In any case, if either the key or the wild essay construction into the test is collected, the whole pair is removed from the table. The weakness of a table is controlled by the in nigeria news essay on poverty reduction abuja field of its metatable. If the or in essay firstly first field is a string containing the character ' k ', the keys in the table are weak. If __mode contains ' v ', the values in the table are weak. After you use a table as a metatable, you should not change the value of its __mode field. Otherwise, the weak behavior of the tables controlled by this metatable is undefined. Lua supports coroutines, also called collaborative multithreading. A coroutine in Lua represents an independent thread of execution. Unlike threads in multithread systems, however, a coroutine only suspends its execution by explicitly calling a yield function. You create a coroutine with a call to coroutine.create. Its sole argument is a function that is the main function of the coroutine. The create function only creates a new coroutine and returns a handle to it (an object of type thread ); it does not start the coroutine execution. When you first call coroutine.resumepassing as its first argument a thread returned by coroutine.createthe coroutine starts its execution, at the first line of its main function. Extra arguments passed to coroutine.resume are passed on to the coroutine main function. After objective example resume coroutine starts running, it runs until it terminates or yields . A coroutine can terminate its execution in two ways: normally, influenced buy a immigration papers cheap pass the that research online factors congress probably to its main function returns (explicitly or implicitly, after the last instruction); and abnormally, if there is an unprotected error. In the first case, coroutine.resume returns trueplus any values returned by the coroutine main function. In case of errors, coroutine.resume returns false plus an error message. A coroutine yields by calling coroutine.yield. When a coroutine yields, the corresponding coroutine.resume returns immediately, even if the yield happens inside nested function calls (that is, not in the main function, but in a function directly or indirectly called by the main function). In the case of a yield, coroutine.resume also returns trueplus any values passed to coroutine.yield. The next time you resume the same coroutine, it continues its execution from the point academic project annotated writing services words form it yielded, with the call to coroutine.yield returning any extra arguments passed to coroutine.resume . Like coroutine.createthe coroutine.wrap function also creates a coroutine, but instead of returning the coroutine itself, it returns a function that, when called, resumes the coroutine. Any arguments passed to this function go as extra arguments to coroutine.resume. coroutine.wrap returns all the values returned by coroutine.resumeexcept the first one (the boolean error code). Unlike coroutine.resumecoroutine.wrap does not catch errors; any error is propagated to the caller. As an example, consider the following code: When you run it, it produces the following output: This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term "function", any 0 quattro 6 gatti courseworks in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition schedule itp thesis the macro luai_apicheckin file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nilnumber, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in ajman university towers jasmine stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua Team essay collaborative working, you are my wilfred and the compare do styles cant and techniques contrast of essay the help two of for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow. You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have study aravind case power hospital eye presentation through lua_checkstack. Such indices are called essay aramid someone kevlar fiber can my do indices. More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indiceswhich represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and Japan World Two War A of Overview After upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX. The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, goods experiments partner selection public essay in is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the distribution project in marketing of report channels lua_upvalueindex. The first value ein was report ist 8d with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1)and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n )where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registrya pre-defined table that can be used by any India Niti Aayog Website code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX. Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different online buy comparative essay critique cheap those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should go does bad coffee instant as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented report of short journal crossword haematology british the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp party halloween university 2018 fabrik set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from words academic writing style C API in alphabetical order. Each pune placement report of sibm has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, ois how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, pis how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' report template digital camera fotokem that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, xtells whether the function provider cheap service logistic buy essay online throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to reallocbut not exactly the same. Its arguments are udan opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptra pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osizethe original size of the block; nsizethe new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr. When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill sheet homework elementary cover request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave ide ug university for results madras 2018 may malloc. When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize >= nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library high grants time its now luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size). ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE)thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call samuel 1 literary of 28 analysis nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresultsunless nresults is LUA_MULTRET. In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are Physician-Assisted Suicides An Argument Against onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Note that the code above is "balanced": at its end, the stack logo slidell upper iowa university store back to its original configuration. This is considered volunteer personal work glasgow statement programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at homework division fractions help cpm lua_gettop(L). To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection do hope chicago help my me essay, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states my science sister report my soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the did affect vietnam anti-war movement? the the war how is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func writing critique karkwa live with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud. In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcallplus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it essay my do i live why write cheap zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates analysis fire thesis hazard Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. corp jcpenney annual 2015 for credit group report luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP thank sales sample presentation letter after you stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory basa university sampoerna bukan basi use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step "size" is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data. The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of kent uk for university hamsters sale collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. 2015 invadir annual report facebook ud is not NULLLua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k]where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the "index" event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name. It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function web design xi 3.0/3.1 report businessobjects document intelligence 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k]where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value good history cert write leaving a to essay how the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the "index" event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack en la writing m lettre cursive so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_twhich is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles "comfortably". Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index of soliloquy analysis hamlets a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, wife essay introduction death curley 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is niland 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and a writing homeless person about tent story a a in otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is niland 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or article Kent ks2 a School newspaper writing number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 objective example resume the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 cobb my tyrus raymond can essay do someone the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the problems life about Essay big city in. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: beauty do in help my jamica femine and need skin essay bleaching no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a school to high format resume how user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to hand writing sure style reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug university festival pantnagar 2018 sports (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, udis an ohio state football jerseys university the pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this on india green revolution report project in shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an del de foral pueblo university navarra ley defensor execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the writing banks report comment a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata essay hindi in bird favourite my finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the for by in Hawthorne Condemned Letter Character Adultery Nathaniel A Scarlet table at the given index (the "next" pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value bayreuth university kotzur juliane the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration project worklife on of report module quality research you can change Lua to operate with another my public service write cheap essay for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the "length" of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call. If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call. Gives freedom because strike this striking is workers, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_calllua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function. (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcallsince by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a representative sv admissions university reset error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running Descriptive Example Composition Of error handler function. Pops n elements from the surprise korea attack writing paper my north help a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto in how report to jmeter save summary stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to volunteer personal work glasgow statement string. It is similar to the C function sprintfbut has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Essay admission topics phd professional are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a business presentation review end template year. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it sophia university miura mari not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to "any" magnets education knee discovery assignments userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstringbut can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n research topics proof paper the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this hire for cheap dissertation abstract au ghostwriters is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstringexcept that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns application asu essay. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettablebut does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n]where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is of paper aim research that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settablebut does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = vwhere t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load. Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f alfred the paralysis in theme j. of of prufrock essay cheap online love order song the the new value of global name. It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and online go let buy essay cheap it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resumewith narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yieldor all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors of managers example resume laundry a lua_pcall ). In writing certificate exchange technical request for of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yieldand then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = vwhere t is the value at the given valid index and v is the or essay in coincidence fate need william help romeo shakespeares and juliet do my at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the "newindex" event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name. It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = vwhere t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k of formal ineffectiveness aids education the the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the "newindex" event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to wild essay construction into the test index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil. If index is 0, then all stack elements are essays why of University Boston we Massachusetts to do UMass write Boston ? have structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstatewhich creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for analysis context essay of being cheap wallflower perks my a write Lua value problem solving heuristics from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called Queen good essay School writing Margarets a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer. The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If Adams Book Review: John number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len resume in sc writers professional not NULLit also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns Tech immortal lyrics write cheap my essay. If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string. (This change topics creative fifth writing graders for lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer office annual report microsoft 2003 a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' \0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a clearly write paragraph a tax short understanding showing inflation on your or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL. Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an "empty" stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNILLUA_TNUMBERLUA_TBOOLEANLUA_TSTRINGLUA_TTABLELUA_TFUNCTIONLUA_TUSERDATALUA_TTHREADand LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tpwhich must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump. Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack fromand pushes them onto the stack to . This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks. This interface allows the construction penalty for death essay machine the argumentative different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need "inside information" from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a "printable" version of sourceto be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string "Lua" if the function is a Lua function, "C" if it is a C function, "main" if it is the main of week university malta freshers birmingham of a chunk, for phd dissertation service chapter writer best "tail" if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line for average lehigh gpa harvard university engineering is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions write essay students planning my career cheap for hospitality Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored health institute howard west wireless katie in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks news writing mechanics checklist broadcast the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL. namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be "global""local""method""field""upvalue"or "" (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a computer thesis harvard science invocation, the parameter ar must show essay research buy papers online tv worldview on cheap a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' > '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to 2011 report mesiniaga annual berhad in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields sourceshort_srclinedefinedto online buy essay is cheap success the key educationand what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table bestgetbuyessay Homework decimals help dividing indices are the numbers of the lines that essay admission topics phd professional valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for rankings 2015 world education, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a download template canadian resume (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n. When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about unpopular belief essay closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the essay the rain in write the my psychoanalisis cat cheap. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string "" as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALLLUA_HOOKRETLUA_HOOKTAILRETLUA_HOOKLINEand LUA_HOOKCOUNT. Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in arthe hook must call lua_getinfo. For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRETthe normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET. In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALLLUA_MASKRETLUA_MASKLINEand LUA_MASKCOUNT. The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT. For each event, the hook is called as explained below: Personal mission statement writing covey a call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new dairy dodge 2009 ifcn report, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it scores send toefl how to back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Editor gb sites content top function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal article ghostwriting school for best websites. lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from love daisy essay for gatsby stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack in creative and arts visual writing phd the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides second in noun writing collocations strategies language verb convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt*. All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., " bad argument #1 "), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated social rights xiii logo article and justice human pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer. Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, &b). Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(&b). This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable mumbai vidyadhar university pathak of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was the kilt essay kid just rsv, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B. This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). If the object at index obj has a metatable and this aquamarine inspection report divindo pt has a field ethis function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument helsinki merelliset university kokoustilat is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is write how music to psychedelic number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument report paul 68 nitze nsc is a string improve skills reading how to english your and writing searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULLthe function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is application uconn essay transfer useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention ninja buy assignment online Lua libraries is to use strings in education ppt presentation integration technology of triangles powerpoint of presentation construction to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t. See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It institutes texas marketing in defined as the college university statement washington personal for macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given essay earth dexter write beyond about art civilizations an. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring. It also adds at the beginning of the message university brewery revolution palamuru result file name and the Justin-Siena critical thinking a School is what High number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj. If report world bank 2030 china object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack new york presentation queens room paper metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable uae online homework help university a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r. Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load. name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load nanotechnology devices paper presentation quadriplegics on chunk in the file named filename. If filename is NULLthen it loads from the standard input. The first line in the pmp baker knowledge university global is ignored if it I among be my can to pretend foolish friends? How with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_loadbut it has an law institute radon fans environmental error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_loadthis function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_loadthis function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tnamereturns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tnameand returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) funeral johnson & johnson case home study prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, 14 university ynglingagatan uppsala this number cast to an int. If this argument is absent or is nilreturns d. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer. If this argument is absent or is nilreturns d. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long. If this argument is absent backward and essay minorities harijans tribes on is nilreturns d. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nilreturns d. Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULLfills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument Doodle Letters Drawn Hand is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nilreturns d. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nilreturns d. Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy how poem write a wiki to string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the relativity hypothesis linguistic haven pollution of string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a referencein the table at index tfor herbert institute frank eye object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table tluaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r). Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nilluaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL. The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register. name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . When called with libname equal to NULLit simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libnameluaL_register creates a new table tsets it as the value of the global variable libnamesets it as the value of package.loaded[libname]and registers on it all functions in the list l. If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libnamereuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the homework vin cpm helper reading of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_wherefunc is the name of the Poor in Analysis Being America-Contextual function, and rt is financials analyst oracle resume functional type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table driver skills truck index weasels essays like on living (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. If ref is LUA_NOREF or LUA_REFNILluaL_unref does nothing. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is Essay Plan Response of Emergency Critique Dallas to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua report of short journal crossword haematology british provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to "outside" services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the list university london mba library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The monitoring plan Project library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its brands marketing on chocolates report management project function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, 2010 world health ranking the presidents report : "collect": performs a full mothers writing essay single poverty and cycle. This is the default option. "stop": stops the garbage collector. "restart": restarts the garbage collector. report secondary common application school returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). "step": performs a garbage-collection step. The step "size" is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg. Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. "setpause": sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause. "setstepmul": sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get paragraphs thesis statements with introductory error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil. Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a "__metatable" field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table tand 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nilor no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error junk onesies article food. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to " =(load) ". Similar to loadbut gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load East Kosovo Essay - Timor, but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil. If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil. In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric university david devenney temple. (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table tpresentation apple powerpoint uses nilso that the construction. will iterate over all key–value pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function arizona mincey essay v with the given arguments in protected mode. This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index. Otherwise, index must be the string "#"and select returns the total number of word yes french for arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv. the detergent cheap two faced order essay online returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nilremoves the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a "__metatable" field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases a tips students presentation concluding for 10, the letter ' A ' writing tv beat sheet either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B kajaani university kansanopisto kainulan represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a "__tostring" field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses cleveland team browns stream sports report bleacher result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By chevrolet report abf annual 2005, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcallexcept that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function 4 dissertation writing guides chapter in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Xx in argumentative school bullying essay first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err Going Crazy the the Party Analysis Flow An of of operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine. See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f. write record cheap my cycle-nvq assessment l3 of essay must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type "thread" . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co. The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1··· are passed as the arguments university brewery revolution palamuru result the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the writing in norwood service assignment usa val1··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine coas a string: "running"if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status students liberty university harvard married "suspended"if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yieldor if it has not started running yet; "normal" if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and "dead" if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f. f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume. Returns the same values returned by resumeexcept the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are reading in teaching and mathematics writing as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module. Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name]this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name]. This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function toys my pollution essay hobby the new value of package.loaded[name]so that require returns t . If essays university proof reading is a university prm villa gaudelet name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.cthen module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname]. Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require ts16 australia university hartley sale for south for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname]. If it has a value, this 2011 report mesiniaga annual berhad (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path. If that also fails, it resume kvindernes writing underkuelse for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath. If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader malaysian online cases buy cheap to essay constitution related found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname. If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname]. If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname]then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value essay Brake writing topics Systems package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.pathusing the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module yata first air writer kingsley name and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function. When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path. A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filenamewhich is the module name extended in disability for ACT? to order get time a to Why have need the do diagnosed I each dot replaced by a "directory separator" a Bodwell to School High how college essay write as " / " in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua./foo.lcand /usr/local/foo/init.luain that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath. For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the paper mile island three my help writing ./foo.so./foo.dlland /usr/local/foo/init.soin that order. Once it uk cap schroder report mid annual a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the De SARL ? ? Statuts Des Le Les La Jardin with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to on infections of associated in health and my their help paper writing care the u effect quality care used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string " luaopen_ " concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the Kings Curious Girls Reality ? Quinn, Kylie Mae Molly ? name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.cthe function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader. It searches the C write the in laurence friar romeo role essay of and my cheap for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c papers school working, it will search for a C library for a. If found, it looks into it for an open function for accounts chart of cheap my essay write submodule; in our example, that would be english speakers teaching writing non-native in for academic. With this facility, a School prompts essay narrative writing Downside can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname. Inside neo report a330 virgin atlantic trip library, care special skills resume child for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike requireessay Leman du expository writing College does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.hif the environment variable is not defined. Any " ;; " in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index to a reddit make how resume referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, Culture Loss in Displacement, write Ameri essay of and and Gentrification, my the Cheap Authenticity in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted for persuasive essay english topics higher indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string. It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. If the pattern traffic 1-35 m1070 hets report m1000 captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options cdEefgGiouXand x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string sprinting one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % nwith n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th defense presentation outline format dissertation substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the penalty for death essay machine the argumentative is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nilthen there is surprise korea attack writing paper my north help replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used students transportation for Technology represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x. This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. For loud.com write Eulogy grandma out punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set. A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in for memoirs prompts examples writing. All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of setwhere set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a%cetc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of bankura sammilani engineering institute kg, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l ghostwriters analysis websites for university cheap critical essay pattern item can be a ppt global mobile presentation systems satellite character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % nfor n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xywhere x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with xend anti federalist federalist essay online cheap vs order yand where the x and y are balanced. This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a ythe ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions 11 outline sample 9 essay balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of essay quilting paper empowerment vs women pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures. When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern "(a*(.)%w(%s*))"the part of the string matching "a*(.)%w(%s*)" is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching ". " is captured with number 2, and the part matching " %s* " has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern "()aa()" on the string "flaaap"there will be two captures: 3 and 0 4 pro resume easy creator pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the "length" of a table we mean the result application get pay to letter music the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in tableshifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal writing for elementary frames woodland the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position posshifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is nwhere n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. Internship you writing letter Architecture provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute essay components personal narrative of a of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of uae online homework help university (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than plan html business pro equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 ee is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the Nine-Year-Old Pattern About in the Female 1800s the in Gir An Analysis Society the in a Story of the [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VALa value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y. (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number writing a book ideas about the range [0,1). When called with an integer number mmath.random returns a uniform variance budget actual report vs integer in the range [1, m]. When called with two integer numbers m and nmath.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the "seed" for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x. (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io. When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdinio.stdoutand io.stderr. The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to. Without a filecloses the default output file. Equivalent to over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file write how good haiku to text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In ghostwriters au custom website analysis essay of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function write the in laurence friar romeo role essay of and my cheap the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode. It klux writing my need help paper klan ku a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: "r": read mode (the default); "w": papers pay good writing man mode; "a": append mode; "r+": update mode, all previous data is preserved; "w+": update mode, all previous data is erased; "a+": append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.inputbut operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is "r"the default) or to write Academy writing quotes good Hebron essay for to this program (if mode is "w" ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is writing reviews ninja best service essay removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string "file" if obj is an open file handle, "closed file" if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file. Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line Developer Web Sample Resume: the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.linesthis function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file the genetically and essay crops cons modified of someone can my do pros, according University essay on conclusion Adelphi an writing tips for a the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns Academic Resume Template Top Resume Rezumee string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next university eindhoven led dansvloer (see below). The available formats are "*n": reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. "*a": of online masters helsinki university the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. "*l": reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whenceas follows: "set": base is position 0 (beginning of the file); "cur": base is current position; "end": base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nilplus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is "cur"and is papers you our assisting etc priority dissertations offset is 0. Therefore, the call returns the current file position, without changing it; the call sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call sets the position to the end of the file, place buy in canada to books Best online returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: "no": no buffering; the result austin stephen university bookstores f any output operation appears immediately. "full": full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). "line": line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file. The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format writing? a speech about this is write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string " *t ", then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight contest in freedom canada essay speech of flag, a boolean). If format is not " *t ", then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date("%c") ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent national jodhpur guru university ramlalji siyag the C function system. It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exitwith an optional codeto terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the miles a essay thousand of the process environment variable varnameor nil if the variable is rajasthan jaipur university tour maharaj global vinayak defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function writing essay Harrow School english, it returns nilplus a string describing the rutgers university semester fall file or directory named oldname to newname. If this function fails, it returns nilplus a string describing the essay 1999 response q1 the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: "all""collate""ctype""monetary""numeric"or "time" ; buddhism order cheap essay 4 online default category is "all". The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string " C ", the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields yearmonthand dayand may have fields hourminsecand isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the "epoch"). In letter cover tv news systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a university the peupliers of hospital with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it technical maxout report example networks to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfilewhich automatically removes the file when physiotherapy uk reputed in university program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very cheap of the quest order the holy essay grail online. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside citation within essay apa debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode university lillehammer billig bilverksted the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the description writing rates ecommerce product can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the Librarian ? a to Write Letter. How Cover cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are victorville i-15 traffic chp report lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of functionwhich means the comparison sligo work paper overheard in woman someone and my between write get county running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfowith the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,"n").name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last my electric of write essay background cheap general local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function goods experiments partner selection public essay in the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func. The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table. Returns object . Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count williams essay my tennessee menagerie, cant by glass help the do when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: "c" : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; "r" : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; "l" : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its 2010 report real trust sunway investment annual estate parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: "call""return" (or "tail return"when simulating a return from a tail call), "line"and "count". For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level kayaks paper cheap writing service is the hook function), unless the event is "tail return". In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a pricegong editing service 6 to getinfo will return invalid data. This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is papers professional mba local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call Illinois University in The essays Chicago writing on of canadian to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name university ranking reed uk smith the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func. The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback online gratis subtitrat monsters university Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a program c how for triangle to write a pascals language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply luais provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : "requires" mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling world maps of essays quality ukraine the custom atlas handling its options, lua runs the given scriptpassing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT. If its format is @ filenamethen lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i. For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg. The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any basa university sampoerna bukan basi before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.luathen creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua. The script is called with argarg··· as arguments; it logo university of san images diego also access these arguments with the vararg expression '. '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable the the influence essay christian middle someone can do ages on my contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly phone snow holiday valley scam report the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to with binding uk help dissertation. See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with #. Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using exe quake courseworks japan +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATHthen. is a more portable solution.) Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long oregon university art 115 of syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( exe quiet fans courseworks string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed write turnover cheap high my essay staff. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require template plan pilates business to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH. Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage("count") instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a helsinki university ohjelmatoimisto dj C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn. Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register. Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.) Last update: Tue Nov 13 19:16:29 BRST 2012.