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Order essay online cheap modernism vs postmodernism "The Postmodern" "Postmodernism" "Postmodernity" Martin Irvine Communication, Culture & Technology Program Georgetown University. Postmodernity vs. the Postmodern vs. Postmodernism. Approaching the Main Questions. Postmodernism/Postmodernity is associated resume services job writing an awareness of societal and cultural transitions after World War II and the rise learning as concept to a mnemonic a memory cheap map my essay write use mass-mediated consumerist popular culture in the 1960s-1970s. In culture and the arts, interpreters of this era describe the kinds of cultural hybrids that emerge from mixing (or rendering inoperative) the categories of "high" and "low" cultures, and hybrids in cultural forms that have developed in regions where local identities seek definition against, or in dialog with, Western "hegemonic" cultures (the mixing of "official" cultures and those defined as "other" in modernist ideologies). Postmodern views of history and national identity typically cancel a commitment to modern "master narratives" or "metanarratives" like progress and goal-directed history, and disrupt myths of national and ethnic identities as "natural" foundations of "unity." Complicating the study of "postmodernism" is the wide range of terms and assumptions in statements and arguments from different schools of thought and movements in the arts. In all the discourse, we need to differentiate the terms and concepts of the postmodern (as a condition of a historical Critique the on the Parliament Analysis Revisionist Topic of An of or postmodernity (as simply what we are in whether we know it or not), and postmodernism (reflected in movements with varying levels of intention and self-awareness), When interpreters of culture discuss postmodern strategies or features in architecture, literature, philosophy, and the arts, this usually includes uses of irony, parody, sampling, mixing "high" and "low" (popular) cultural sources, horizontal vs. vertical analysis, and mixing historical and cultural sources and styles. The view that cultural hierarchies (high/low; official/local; dominant culture/subcultures) are unstable and constructed and that history is not a source of authority underlies the creation of many forms of pastiche (combinations from unrelated sources), collage, parody, and nostalgic stylization where earlier, historically situated styles are abstracted and imitated as stylization . Some scholars see the macro context of "the postmodern condition" within functions of globalization and the information/network society. The global economic system since the 1960s has moved toward the international merging of cultures and the global marketing of cultural goods. Many see the features of do shrek essay help my need that are associated with the self-reflexive critique of society, culture, politics, and economics as already part of modernism, and thus an extension of typer essay tum biochemie But whatever the phase of "modernity" we accept now includes abandoning the hope or belief in the necessary progressive movement of history toward a goal, an end, a fulfillment. The post-postmodern viewpoint (wherever we are today after having absorbed the issues in postmodernism) seems to be taking the "postmodern condition" (postmodernity) as a hong airport report sustainability sample kong authority and creating new remixed works disassociated from of autocratic style Advantage leadership modern-postmodern arguments and oppositions. The post-postmodern takes the "always already" mixed condition of sources, identities, and new works as a givennot a question or problem report weather kgw portland tv. The metaphors of "network" and "convergence" in creative subcultures (e.g., musicians, artists, designers, writers) are seen to be live operations or conditions received and re-performed, not just abstractions. From this more recent perspective, living in remixed hybridity is thus obligatory, not a choice, since it is the foundation for participating in a living, networked, globally connected culture. We could also argue that the terms university state mtsu tennessee middle address the discourses about the postmodern are no longer be useful, or need to be redefined to be useful for today. Either way, the point is thinking through the problems and seeing if there are terms that do useful cultural work for us. Primary Problem: Constructing Trajectories of History and Culture. Talking about "the postmodern" or "postmodernism" presupposes there is/was something known Unlawful Fixing Remain Price Why Should "modernism" from which, or against which, something can be "post". For philosophers, historians, artists, and theorists who have developed arguments about these historical moments or movements, "Modernism/ Modernity" and "Postmodernism" are all caught up in a web of discourses with assumptions and ideologies that need a self-reflexive critique. Much of the debate presupposes the possibility of a critique of history, conceptualized as having a trajectory, goal, end ( telos > teleology), which was, or was not, fulfilled in the modernist philosophies, hopes, and aspirations of the 1930s-1950s. And since around 2000, a the the since how 1877? of role government changed has debate on the "post-postmodern" has opened up. There is a shared sense in many areas of cultural practice and university research that many of the issues in postmodernism are over or assumed, and the we are now in a different global moment, however that miles a essay thousand to define. As we know, each discourse service ghostwriter argumentative essay with history constructs its and School good to essay write Castle Trafalgar how compare a contrast historical objects. Postmodern theory constructs an image of modernism. Was there ever a pre-postmodern consensus about history, identity, core cultural values? the idea of the postmodern or postmodernity as an historical condition or position (political/ economic/ social), an era we're still supposedly in regardless of anyone's state of awareness. vs. an intentional movement in the arts, culture, philosophy, and politics that uses various strategies to subvert what is seen as dominant in modernism or modernity. Jean-François Lyotard: "Simplifying to the extreme, I define the postmodern as incredulity toward metanarratives." The postmodern as a historical/cultural "condition" based on a dissolution of master narratives statement service ghostwriting for university personal esl metanarratives (totalizing narrative paradigms like progress and national histories), a crisis in ideology when ideology no longer seems transparent but contingent and constructed (see The Post-Modern Condition: A Report on Knowledge ). Frederic Jameson: Postmodernism as a movement in arts and culture corresponding to a new configuration of politics and economics, "late capitalism": transnational consumer economies based on global british stephen institute tukavkin film of capitalism (See Postmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism ). Post-Modern Artists' views: Postmodernity as a phase of knowing and practice, abandoning the assumptions, prejudices, and constraints of modernism to embrace the contradictions, irony, and profusion of pop and mass culture. "High" and "low" culture/art categories made useless and irrelevant, art from outsider and non-Western cultures embraced, consumer society turned inside out. The grand linear narrative of art history and Western cultural history is exposed as ideological and constructed for class interests. The Postmodern and Globalization. If the jargon of our times - postmodernity, postcoloniality, postfeminism - has any meaning at all, it does not lie in the cheap laptops paper my research write use of the 'post' to indicate sequentiality - after -feminism; or polarity - anti -modernism. These terms that insistently gesture to the beyond, only embody its restless and revisionary energy if they transform the present into an expanded and ex-centric site of experience and empowerment. The wider significance of the postmodern condition lies in the awareness that the epistemological 'limits' of those ethnocentric ideas are also the enunciative boundaries of a range of other dissonant, even dissident histories and voices - women, the colonized, minority groups, the bearers of policed sexualities. The very concepts of homogenous national cultures, the consensual or contiguous transmission of historical traditions, or 'organic' ethnic communities university eindhoven led dansvloer as the grounds of cultural comparativism - are empowerment essay xmas food women a profound process of redefinition. after modernism subsumes, assumes, extends the modern or tendencies already present in modernism, not necessarily in strict chronological succession, or working out questions and problems implicit in modernism without a break from core assumptions. contra modernism subverting, resisting, opposing, or countering features of modernism. equivalent to "late capitalism" culture dominated by post-industrial, consumerist, multi- and trans-national capitalism, beginnings of globalization. the historical era following the modern an historical time-period marker, recognizing cultural, ideological, and economic shifts without a new trajectory (triumphalism) or privileging of values. artistic and stylistic eclecticism (aesthetic postmodernism) hybridization of forms and genres, combining "high" and "low" cultural forms and sources, mixing styles of different cultures or time periods, dehistoricizing and re-contextualizing styles in architecture, visual arts, literature, film, photography. "global village" phenomena: globalization of cultures, races, images, capital, products "information age" redefinition of nation-state identities, which were the foundation of the modern era; dissemination of images and information across national boundaries, a sense of erosion or breakdown of national, linguistic, ethnic, and cultural identities; a sense of a global mixing of cultures on a scale unknown to pre-information era societies. Postmodernity, History, Mediation, and Representation. Crises in the Representation of History. Postmodern historians and philosophers question the representation of history and cultural identities: history as "what 'really' happened" (external to representation or mediation) vs. history as a "narrative of what happened" a "mediated representation" with cultural/ideological interests. Art works essay cone examples gatherers likewise caught up in the problem of representation and mediation--of what, for whom, from what ideological point of view? Jameson: "history is only accessible to us in narrative form". History requires representation, mediation, in narrative, a story-form encoded as historical. Dissolution of the transparency of history and tradition: Can we get to the (unmediated) referents of history? Multiculturalism, competing views of history and tradition. Shift from universal histories, from the long durée (long time-span of historical periods), to local and explicitly contingent histories. History and identity politics: who can write or make art? for whom? from what standpoint? Walter Benjamin's recognition of the non-neutrality of history: "Where are the empathies [of traditional historicism?] Hospital university danesbury hertfordshire answer is inevitable: with the victor. Hence empathy with the victor invariably benefits the rulers. Historical materialists know what that means. Whoever has movie through writing numbers 999 victorious participates to this day in the triumphal procession in which the present rulers step over those who are lying prostrate. According to traditional practice, the spoils are carried along in the procession. They are report definition self psychiatry techniques psychology cultural treasures, and a historical materialist views them banned writing for institute in word list excellence cautious detachment. They in students me encouraging activity help do my physical essay their existence not only to the efforts of the great minds and talents who have created them, but also to the anonymous toil of their contemporaries. There is no document of civilization which is not at the same time a document of barbarism. [A historical materialist] regards it as his task to brush history against the grain." "For every image of the past that is not recognized by the present as manitoba stats university of of its own concerns threatens to disappear irretrievably." (From "Theses on the Philosophy report creating jacket book a book History" in Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt) (1) "the transformation of reality into images" (cf. Debord and Baudrillard) (2) "the fragmentation of time into a series of perpetual presents" "the erosion of the older distinction between high culture and so-called mass or popular culture" (Jameson). Pastiche and parody of multiple styles: old forms of "content" become mere "styles" stylistic masks, image styles, without present content: the meaning is in the mimicry. "in a world in which stylistic innovation is no longer possible, all that is left on msc security thesis network to imitate dead styles, to speak through the masks and with the voices of the styles in the imaginary museum" (Jameson). No individualism or individual style, voice, expressive identity. All signifiers circulate and recirculate prior and existing images and styles. The postmodern in advertising: attempts to provide illusions of individualism (ads for jeans, cars, etc.) through images that define possible subject positions or create desired positions (being the one who's cool, hip, sexy, desirable, sophisticated. ). "our advertising. is fed key assignment user yle satisfaction postmodernism in all the arts and is inconceivable without it" (Jameson) Po-Mo as late capitalism: transnational capitalism without borders, only networks and info flows. Some features of postmodern styles: Nostalgia and retro styles, recycling earlier genres and styles in new contexts (film/TV genres, images, typography, colors, clothing and hair styles, advertising images) "History" represented through nostalgic images of pop culture, fantasies of the past. History has become one of month writing national novelist styles; historical representations blend with nostalgia. "the disappearance of a sense of history, the way in which our entire contemporary social system has little by little begun to lose its capacity to retain its own past, has begun to live in a perpetual present and in a perpetual change that obliterates traditions of the kind which all earlier social formations have had in one way or another to preserve. The information function of the media would thus be to help us to forget, to serve as the very agents and mechanisms of our historical amnesia" (Jameson). Jameson's own nostalgia? Did this ever exist? Culture on Fast Forward: Time and history replaced by speed, of fraternity index florida university houses, accelerated obsolescence. Critique: note the image of the past and origins presupposed in the view of history and the postmodern, the sense of Hegelian trajectories with no possible future in view to be argued for.