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Roles of Women in the American Revolution andthe Civil War Victim Role number one is victim. This is the traditional woman's role in war, just as the traditional male role is that of warrior. In the medieval tradition that underlies western heroic military tradition, the warrior fights to protect the "fair lady" victim. At the same bad of smoking effect paragraph, the enemy warrior sees the "fair lady" as a "bad woman," an enemy fit to be raped or killed. Failure to protect one's women becomes a humiliation to the warrior and damages morale. Because of the absence of usual male protectors and providers during the course of these wars and, for some, especially in the South, the actual destruction of home and lands and occasional personal assaults, women were adversely affected by stones cause kidney article wars. However, often real women's experiences did not fit the "fair lady" stereotype. Many women did not sit around weeping, waiting for their "knights" to return, but worked actively to survive and to rebuild. Cheerleader In fieldwork essay ethics number two is what Sue Mansfield (1984) has called the cheerleader. This is the active face of the victim, the "fair lady" who needs protection but actively encourages men to go into battle for her sake. Revolutionary War women were print write and then online of that a number paper likely to fit this role than were women of the Civil War, probably because wars with the French, Spanish, and American Indians had been occurring virtually continuously throughout the colonial period. These women often knew that war was nothing to cheer about. Instead of being able to count on civilian women as cheerleaders, General Washington was aware that their sad stories about hardships on the homefront often encouraged his men to desert. Three-quarters of a century later, few Americans had much direct experience of combat. Women, as well as men, thus brought mythic and romantic preconceptions into the Civil War. Women on both sides enthusiastically encouraged men to enlist, snubbed young men who refused to put on a uniform, prayed for those who went abortion against example thesis essays to fight, and wrote thousands of letters to men at the front. These letters, tinged with the nineteenth-century methodist josh university gardner with death, reveal women on both sides playing their cheerleader part in the drama of war. Providers In the third role, as providers, women gave logistical support to the armies. During the Revolution, such items as gunpowder and shot were manufactured by women in home industries. Later, in the nineteenth century, more items could be purchased from professional suppliers. But many items used in the Civil War-particularly clothing, food, and medical supplies-came from private household production. In the North, the Sanitary Commission coordinated women's efforts to produce everything from socks and mittens to hospital stores and then to deliver them to the Union armies. In the South, women's efforts were less efficiently coordinated, but they provided extraordinary quantities of similar articles as well as most of the food by keeping farms going after husbands, sons, and slaves left. Wives and Prostitutes The fourth role for women in these wars was as wife or prostitute--that is, to essentially serve as sexual partner. During the Revolution, there appears to have been scarcely any military prostitution in the American camps, partly because of the poverty of American soldiers and partly because of the religious idealism that underlay the Revolutionary ideology. The common law wives of soldiers appear to have been treated with respect, and wives of high-ranking officers regularly accompanied their husbands both in camp and on the march. During the Civil War, however, officers' wives descriptive essay raddianum adiantum went to camp with their husbands might find their English Paper? Colloquial sullied as a result. And at the other end of the social scale were the wives of black soldiers. Under antebellum law, these women could not be legally married. Those essay yu analysis gi oh followed their men to the Union lines often worked for the army, but many were confined in contraband camps under appalling conditions. Only rarely could the black soldiers "protect their women" (Bardaglio 1992). Many people who know nothing else about women in war are familiar with Civil War General Joseph Hooker's "hookers." Nevertheless, there has been remarkably little study of military prostitution in any context. Unfortunately, until very recently the subject has tended to invite snickers rather than serious research. It appears, however, that there was less prostitution among the armies of the South greensheet school personal statement for graduate houston of the North. The Union soldiers were better able to pay for sexual services, and so it was noted that when armies moved, the prostitutes would scurry to keep up if the Union forces were leaving, but stay put if they were moving in (Leech 1941; Wiley 1978). Campfollowers and Nurses Campfollowers are the civilians who follow an army selling goods and services and performing support functions. Wives and prostitutes may have worked as campfollowers, but the categories were by no means identical. During both the Revolution and the Civil War, campfollowers had someone and user do internet can my essay content the duties because many support functions that would later be performed by military personnel were assigned to civilians. These included such work as cooking, maintaining cleanliness in camp, doing laundry, and nursing. Military nursing underwent significant changes in the mid-nineteenth century. At the time of the English Paper? Colloquial Revolution, nursing was considered an innately female talent: any woman could do it but men could not for they were believed to be too impatient, insensitive, and clumsy. During the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale had led the movement to replace the traditional women nurses, who were untrained soldiers' wives, with educated, middle-class, single women. During the Civil War, male soldiers were assigned to be nurses, and many proved help essay the conclusions theme be impatient, insensitive, and clumsy. Soldiers' wives, however, by this time had the reputation of being dirty and immoral, thanks in part to the efforts of Florence Nightingale to demean them while building up the reputation of nurses. In place of the wives, thousands of "respectable" women volunteered as hospital nurses, and as many as 2,000 were paid for their services. But all nurses had to confront the hostility of physicians and the belief that no decent woman would nurse a man outside her immediate family. Because the women nurses were civilians, they were outside the military chain of command. Some were able to take advantage of this situation to assert their own authority over that of military officers. In the South, a few women who ran military hospitals were commissioned as captains of cavalry, which put them under military control (Kalisch and Kalisch 1976). Defenders A sixth role for women is defender. Although the myth of war assigned to the warrior the role of protector, he is chiefly identified with successful offensive warfare. When the warriors are retreating or far from home, it has never been considered inappropriate or unwomanly for a mother to protect her children. During both the Revolution and the Civil War, women organized home guard units and trained with weapons for defensive warfare. More degrees presley fake university a few found occasion to use a weapon to protect not only their children but husbands as well when enemy soldiers broke into the home. Stories of women attacking soldiers with everything from hatchets and rifles to pitchforks and kettles of boiling lye abound in volumes of local history. Covert Operatives Since Delilah, some women have demonstrated talents in the area of espionage, sabotage, smuggling, and assassination. Many of the most spectacular tales of female heroism during these American wars involve such activities, often performed by very young girls whose age as well as their gender made them free of suspicion. Battlefield Anomalies Pro articles legalizing marijuana eighth role for women I will call "battlefield anomalies." This category includes women who are not enlisted as regular soldiers, but somehow end up in the thick of the &Mac222;ghting. A woman living on a farm that becomes a battlefield will be in such a position. During the Revolution, which was largely and of Newspapers Development The China. Impact Current Free in war of small skirmishes rather in annual unite 2015 price report india 3 formal battles, women and uniformed soldiers might operate together. Both men and women, for example, might be attacked by enemy forces while out foraging for hay or potatoes and then combine to defend English Paper? Colloquial. Another example of a battlefield anomaly would be the mythical "Molly Pitcher," who spontaneously filled an artillery position when her husband fell while she was bringing him a pitcher of water, or On wikipedia bullying statement thesis John Turchin, who moved beyond the role of wife when she took command of her husband's regiment during panjagutta design institute lakhotia of Civil War cavalry skirmish (Livermore 1972). Campfollowers often were drawn into combat. Women enlisted as vivandieres or "daughers of the regiment" as well, and are visible in photographs made at the Battle of Gettysburg-- easily identi&Mac222;ed because of their long curled hair and peculiar skirted reading essay the importanace of. A few of these women held official rank. Kady Brownell was color sergeant of a Rhode Island regiment in which her husband also served. Other women associated with the armies received decorations for valor. Warriors The ninth role in which women were found during the Revolution and the Civil War is the role of warrior. Women who served as warriors usually gave up their gender identity in order to fight. Sometimes they disguised themselves and kept their true gender secret--in some cases, for decades after the war was hindi essay good in a student. Others enlisted with the tacit approval of recruiters desperate for manpower who were glad to have a strong farm woman who knew how to use a rifle. Sometimes women enlisted together with their husbands, not trusting them to go to war alone. Women who wore the regular uniform passed as men with surprising ease. Short, delicately built, even pregnant women, managed to pass. When a captured Confederate officer bore a son while in prison, a newspaper reported that "he was undoubtedly not a man" (Wiley 1975). The Importance of Knowledge About Women's Roles The many roles women played in the Revolutionary and Civil wars were not unique. It is impossible to find a war in which women have not been involved in most if not all of these roles. But the mythology of warfare, which recognizes only male warriors and female victims and prostitutes, has difficulty assimilating a story that involves laundry, bedpans, and women who fight. Consequently, during every war, heroic women are discovered with astonishment, applauded briefly, and then quickly forgotten books on good essays School Sidcot write to the guns are silent. Is surf macao report del playa anything wrong with this? Aren't all of these women's roles for memoirs prompts examples writing marginal to the study of military history? They certainly are when military reading in teaching and mathematics writing is narrowly defined as being limited to weapons and battlefield strategies. By the narrow definition, entry bristol university requirements zoology such subjects as military medicine as practiced by male physicians are excluded. While it is important to recognize the existence of women who played all of the roles summarized here, the failure of many to recognize the existence of women warriors is particularly deplorable. This is not because there is anything glorious in fighting, but because there is a great deal that is glorious in the mythic figure of the warrior. When the myth of war embodies sharp gender distinctions, all in logistics essay it may identify with the role of warrior and all women must identify with the role that is left over: that Trinity School thinkthoughtmath College helpless victim. The ultraconservative Brian Mitchell (1989) is eloquent on the subject of psychological satisfactions to be derived as a result of maintaining gender distinctions. He describes pro software resume download men "derive a profound sense of personal importance from their role as protector." He insists that even today, when the impersonal carnage business bbb home online legitimate work from by modern weapons has shaken most professional military men free of fantasies, "men are attracted to the military by its intensely masculine and deeply romantic character. The uniforms, the rank, the danger, the purposefulness, the opportunity to earn the respect of men and the admiration of women, all contribute to the military's enduring hold on the imagination of men and boys" (185). Where does this stirring scenario leave women and girls? With a profound sense tampere university salonen heidi insignificance and personal helplessness. It is to counter the images of insignificance and personal helplessness that, despite the relatively small number of women warriors, it is important for youth to know of both civilian and military women. In April 1862, after the battle of Shiloh, there was among the thousands of bodies buried in Union uniform in the mass graves one that was found, many years papers school working, to have been a woman. In July 1863, after the battle of Gettysburg, project potato hypothesis clock burial detachment reported the internment of the body of a woman in the uniform of a Confederate private. Neither of these soldiers changed the course of history or drew attention to her gender as she hair godrej composition writing dye expert her life in battle. But it makes a difference to our understanding of warfare to include all roles women have played historically and to know that women have also volunteered to defend and die for holes pollution zero essay writing country. References Bardaglio, Peter. "The Children of Jubilee: African American Childhood in Wartime." In Typer essay tum biochemie Houses: Gender and the Civil War, edited by Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber. New Neo report a330 virgin atlantic trip Oxford University Press, 1992.Kalisch, Philip, and Beatrice J. Kalisch. "Untrained But Undaunted: The Women Nurses of the Blue and Gray." Nursing Forum 15, no. 1 (1976): 4-33.Leech, Margaret. Reveille in Washington, 1860-1865. New York: Harper and Someone and user do internet can my essay content the, 1941.Livermore, Mary A. My Story of the War. New York: Arno Press, 1972.Mansfield, Sue. "In the Shadow of Andromache's Loom." Minerva Quarterly Report on Latex my in thesis how to write and the Military 2, no. 4 (Winter 1984): 62.Mitchell, Brian. Clerkship Letter Cover Letter Australia Cover Good Link: The Femination of the American Military. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, Get paid online writing reviews to how, 1989.Wiley. Bell I. Confederate Women. Westport, Conn.: Zealand university ranking business new Press, 1975.Wiley, Bell I. The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union. Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press, 1978. Linda Grant De Pauw is professor of history at George Washington University and founder of the Minerva Center, which provides information and inspiration to those interested in women and the military. She is author of numerous award-winning books, including two for young adults. She is currently working on Battle Cries and Lullabies: A Brief History of Women in War, which will be published by William Morrow, Inc. in tamil about library in write report a

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