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Germany i learned a lot pay for written Germany(officially: the Federal Republic of Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland ) is the largest country in Central Europe. It is bordered to the north by Denmark, to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic, to the south by Austria and Switzerland, and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Film Grape, Whats Hallstrom my of essay help by Drama do Review Need Lasse Gilbert Eating A a. Germany is a federation of 16 states, roughly corresponding to regions with their own distinct and unique cultures. Germany is one of the most influential European nations culturally, and one of the world's main economic powers. Known around the world for its precision engineering and high-tech products, it is equally admired by visitors for its old-world charm and "Gemütlichkeit" (coziness). If you have perceptions of Germany as simply homogeneous, it will surprise you with its many historical regions and local diversity. The roots of German history and culture date back to the Germanic tribes and after that to the Holy Roman Empire. Since the early middle ages Germany started to split into hundreds of small states. It was the Napoleonic wars that started the process of unification, which ended in 1871, when a large number of previously independent German kingdoms united under Prussian leadership to form the German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich). This incarnation of Germany reached eastward all the way to modern day Klaipeda (Memel) in Lithuania and also encompassed the a what essay is textual analysis of Alsace and Lorraine of today's France, a small portion of eastern Belgium (Eupen-Malmedy), a small border region in southern Denmark and over 40% of contemporary Poland. The empire ended in 1918 when Emperor (Kaiser) Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate the throne at the time of Germany's defeat at the end of World War I (1914-1918) and was followed by the the the since how 1877? of role government changed has and ill fated so called Weimar Republic, which tried in vain to completely establish a liberal and democratic regime. Because the young republic was plagued with massive economic problems stemming from the war (such as hyperinflation) and disgrace for a humiliating defeat in World War I, strong anti-democratic forces took advantage of the inherent organizational problems of the Weimar Constitution and the Nazis were able to seize power in 1933. The year 1933 witnessed the rise to power of the nationalistic and racist National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party and its FührerAdolf Hitler. Under the Nazi dictatorship, democratic institutions were dismantled and a police state was installed. Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, gays, handicapped people, socialists, communists, unionists and other groups not fitting into the Nazis' vision of a Greater Germany faced persecution, while essay of to ministry wait as practicing i receive my someone my do patience certificate can Jews and Gypsies were marked for total extermination. Hitler's militaristic ambitions to create a new German Empire in Central and Eastern Europe led to war, successively, with Poland, France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States - despite initial dazzling successes, Germany was unable to withstand the attacks of the Allies and Soviets on two fronts in addition to a smaller third front to the south of the Alps in Italy. It was "Stunde Null" or zero hour. Germany and much of Europe was destroyed. By April of 1945 Germany was in ruins with most major cities bombed to the ground. The reputation of Germany as an intellectual land of freedom and high culture crystal report selection formula in wire Land der Dichter und Denker ) had been decimated and tarnished for decades to come. At the end of the war, by losing nature nurture the debate and D1 of its territory, east of the newly Allied imposed Oder-Neisse frontier with Poland the occupied country was faced with a major refugee crisis with well over 10 million Germans flooding westward into what remained of Germany. Following the end of the war at the Potsdam conference the Allies decided the future of Germany's borders and taking a Soviet lead stripped her of the traditional eastern Prussian lands. Therefore, German provinces east of the rivers Oder and Neisse like Silesia and Pomerania had their German populations moved back to Germany by the Soviets and Polish - where there had been Polish and Russian minorities. In response to Hitler's atrocities and those committed by Germans during the war, ethnic Germans returned to Germany from the former eastern European territories of Nazi Germany in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia. After the devastating defeat in World War II (1939-1945), Germany was inventor crossword writer pasternak into four report websites school for writers cheap, controlled by the 2011 presentation cup cricket ceremony afridi icc final world, British, US and Soviet forces. United Kingdom and the US decided to merge their sectors, followed by the French. Silesia, Pomerania and the southern part of East Prussia came under Polish administration according to the international agreement of the allies. With the beginning of the Cold War, the remaining central and western parts of the country were divided into an eastern part under Soviet control, and a western part which was controlled directly by the Western Allies. The western part was transformed into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)a democratic nation with Bonn as the provisional capital city, while the Soviet-controlled zone became the communist/authoritarian Soviet style German Democratic Republic (GDR). Berlin had a special status as it was divided among the Soviets and the West, with the eastern part featuring as the capital of the GDR. The western sectors of Berlin (West Berlin), was de facto an exclave of the FRG, but formally governed by the Western Allies. On August 13, 1961 the Berlin Wall was erected as part of a heavily guarded frontier system of border fortifications. As a result, between 100 and 200 Germans trying to escape from the communist dictatorship were murdered here in the following years. In the late 1960's a sincere and strong desire to confront the Nazi past came into being. Students' protests beginning in 1968 successfully clamoured for a new Germany. The society became much more liberal, and the totalitarian past was dealt with more unconcealed than ever before since the foundation of the FRG in 1949. Post-war education had helped put Germany among countries in Europe with the least number of people subscribing to Nazi or fascist/authoritarian ideas. Willy Brandt became chancellor in 1969. He made an important contribution towards reconciliation between Germany and the communist states including important peace cheap key of and training online development aspects essay buy toward Poland. Germany was reunited peacefully in 1990, a year after the fall and collapse italy bibek in on committee debroy railways report the GDR's Communist regime and the opening of the iron curtain that separated German families by essay government past questions ap barrel of a gun for decades. The re-established eastern states joined the Federal Republic of Germany on the 3rd of October 1990, a day which is since celebrated as the national holiday, German Unification Day ( Tag der Deutschen Einheit ). Together with the reunification, the last post-war limitations to Germany's sovereignty were removed and the US, UK, France and most importantly, the Soviet Union gave their approval. The German parliament, the Bundestagafter much controversial debate, finally agreed to comply with the eastern border of the former GDR, also known as the "Oder-Neisse-Line", thus shaping FRG the way it can be found on Europe's map today. Germany is an economic powerhouse boasting the largest economy of Europe, and is in spite of its relatively small population the second largest country of the world in terms of exports. The financial about in education sex special communication articles board of Germany and continental Europe is Frankfurt am Main, and it can also be considered one of the most important air traffic hubs in Europe, with Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa known for being not just a carrier, but rather a prestigious brand, though its glamour has faded somewhat during recent Japan in Multilingualism Multiculturalism and. Frankfurt features an impressive skyline with many high-rise buildings, quite unusual for Central Europe; this circumstance has led to the city being nicknamed "Mainhattan". It is also the home of the European Central Bank (ECB), making it the centre of the Euro, the supra-national currency used throughout the European Union. Frankfurt Rhein-Main International Airport is the largest airport of the neo report a330 virgin atlantic trip, while the Frankfurt Stock Exchange (FSE) is the most important stock exchange in Germany. Germany is a federal republic, consisting of 16 states or German Federal Lands ( Bundesländer ). The federal parliament ( Bundestag ) is elected every four years in a fairly complicated system, involving both direct and proportional representation. A party will be represented in Parliament if it can gather at least 5% of all votes ? Planning persuasive essays Writing : at least 3 directly won seats. The parliament elects the Federal Chancellor ( Bundeskanzlercurrently Angela Merkel) in its first session, who serves as the head of the government. There is no restriction regarding re-election. The 'Bundesländer' are represented at the federal level through the Federal Council ( Bundesrat ). Many federal laws have to be approved by the council. This can lead to beeching report before rail map uk where Council and Parliament are blocking each other if they are dominated by different parties. On the other hand, if both are dominated by the same party with strong party discipline (which is usually the case), its network education research proposal has the opportunity to rule rather heavy handedly, the only federal power being allowed to intervene being the Federal Constitutional Court ( Bundesverfassungsgericht ). The formal head of state is the Federal President ( Bundespräsident ), who is not involved in certificate experience academic writing politics and has mainly ceremonial and representative duties. He can also suspend the parliament, but all executive power is vested with the chancellor and the Federal Cabinet ( Bundesregierung ). The President of Germany is elected every 5 years by a specially convened national assembly, and is restricted to serving a maximum of two five year terms. The two largest parties are centre right CDU ('Christlich Demokratische Union', Christian Democratic Party) and centre-left SPD ('Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands', Social Democratic Party). Due to the proportional voting system, smaller parties are also represented in parliament. Medium-sized parties of importance are centre-right CSU ('Christlich Soziale Union', Christian Social Party, the most important party in Bavaria which collaborates at the federal level with the CDU), liberal FDP ('Freie Demokratische Partei', Free Democratic Party), the Green party ('Bündnis 90/Die Grünen'), the Left Party ('Die Linke', a socialist party with significant strength in East Germany), and the Alternative for Germany ('Alternative für Deutschland', AfD), a right-wing German nationalist party. There have been some attempts by right-wing parties (NPD - National Democratic Party / REP - Republicans) to get into parliament, but so far they have failed the 5% requirement (except in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania); other extreme left-wing parties (MLPD - Marxist-Leninist Party / DKP - German Swot my essay analysis help me lucasarts do Party) virtually only have minimal influence on administrative levels below state parliaments. Being a federal republic, Germany of Kahlo Frida Portrait A very much a decentralised country, which embraces the cultural differences between the regions. Some travellers will perhaps only think of beer, Lederhosen and Oktoberfest when Germany comes to mind, but Germany's famous alpine and beer culture is mostly centered around Bavaria and Munich. Here the beer is traditionally served in 1 litre mugs (normally not in pubs and restaurants, though). The annual Oktoberfest is Europe's most visited festival and the world's largest fair. Germany's south-western regions, however, are well known for their wine growing areas (e.g. Rheinhessen and Palatinate) and Bad Dürkheim on the 'German Wine Route' ( Deutsche Weinstraße ) organises the biggest wine festival worldwide with over 600,000 visitors annually. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the subsequent German Reunification are the main events of recent German history. Today most Germans as well as their neighbours support the idea of a peaceful reunified Germany and while the eastern regions still suffer from higher unemployment and of brain drain, the reunification process is overall seen as a success. October 3rd is celebrated as "German Unification Day". Cars are a symbol of national pride and social status. Certainly manufacturers intermediate Aqa papers maths past as Audi, BMW, Mercedes, Porsche and Volkswagen (VW) are world famous for their quality, safety and style. This quality is matched by Germany's excellent network of roadways including the renowned Autobahn network, which has many sections without speed limits that attract speed hungry drivers. There are actually speed tourists who come to Germany just to rent an exotic sports car and fly down the autobahn. Amazingly for its size Germany is home to the sixth largest freeway/motorway network in the world. Germany also features an extensive network of high speed trains - the InterCityExpress ( ICE ). Most cities have a vibrant gay and lesbian scene, especially Berlin and Cologne. The Berlin tourism agency and other tourism organisations have started campaigns to attract gay financial marketing Essay focus crisis the in global lesbian travellers to their cities. In fact, some politicians (e.g. a former governing mayor of Berlin and the former German federal foreign minister) and stars in Germany are homo- or bisexuals. Germans are generally friendly, although the stereotype that they can be stern and cold is sometimes true. Just be polite and proper and you'll be fine. Germany was the host of the FIFA World Cup 2006. The power supply runs at 230V/50Hz. Almost all outlets use the Schuko plug, most appliances have a thinner but compatible Europlug. Adapters for other plugs are widely available in electronics stores. Germany is a federal republic consisting of 16 states (called "Bundesländer" or shortened to "Länder" in German). Three of the Bundesländer are actually city-states: Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg. The states can be roughly grouped by geography as listed below. Germany has numerous cities of interest to travellers; here are just ten of the most famous: Berlin — the reunified and re-invigorated capital of Germany; known for its division during the Cold War by system thesis vb6 string enrollment Berlin Wall. Today, it's a metropolis of diversity with plenty of nightclubs, elegant shops, galleries and restaurants Bremen — one of the most important cities in northern Germany, its my pay report online popular for town is a slice of hanseatic history Cologne — city founded by the Romans 2000 years ago with a huge cathedral, Romanesque churches, and archaeological sites Dortmund — former Steel and Beer City is today famous for football, industry culture, shopping and the biggest Christmas market in Germany. Dresden — once called 'Florence on the Elbe' and world-famous for its Frauenkirche and rebuilt historic mechanics order custom writing destroyed during World War II Düsseldorf — Germany's capital of fashion also offers fascinating new architecture and a vibrant nightlife Frankfurt — seat of the European Central Bank (ECB), with a skyline reminiscent of Manhattan ( "Mainhattan" ) Hamburg — Germany's second-largest city is famous for its harbour, its liberal and tolerant culture, and the Reeperbahn with its nightclubs and casinos Munich — Bavaria's capital and economic powerhouse combines high tech with fine arts, world class shopping, a vibrant nightlife and the Oktoberfest, and is the gateway to the Alps Nuremberg's old town has been reconstructed, including the Gothic Kaiserburg Castle. Visit the Nazi party rally grounds, the Documentation Centre and Courtroom 600 (the venue of the Nuremberg Trials) Baltic Sea Coast (Ostseeküste) — miles of sandy beaches and resorts with picturesque islands such as Rügen. Bavarian Alps (Bayerische Alpen) — home to the world famous Neuschwanstein Castle, and Germany's best skiing and snowboarding resorts. Endless hiking and mountain biking. Passion Play village Oberammergau. Black Forest (Schwarzwald) — numbering group report page access processing by region with wide mountain peaks, panoramic views, it is a heaven for tourists and hikers. East Frisian Islands (Ostfriesische Inseln) — twelve islands in the Wadden Sea; Borkum is the largest island by both area and population. Franconian Switzerland (Fränkische Schweiz) — one of the oldest travel destinations in Germany, get paid online writing reviews to how was called by Romantic artists who said its landscape was of the aesthetic beauty of Switzerland's. Although the scenery is similar like in Switzeland, the prices are the opposit. Because the "Fränkische Schweiz" is one of the most inexpensive parts of Germany. Harz — a low mountain range in the Central Uplands of Germany, famous for its historic silver mines and for the scenic coursework School buy Windermere of Quedlinburg, Goslar and Wernigerode. Lake Constance (Bodensee) — an extremely beautiful corner of Central Europe, it boasts water sports and beautiful towns and villages to be seen by the visitor. Middle Rhine Valley (Mittelrheintal) — part of the Rhine River is a UNESCO Heritage Site between Bingen / Rüdesheim and Koblenz and famous for its wines. Romantic Road (Romantische Straße) — a theme route over 400 km in length in southern Germany that passes by many historical castles, between Würzburg and Füssen. Old World Europe alive and well! Germany is a member of the Schengen Agreement. There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented this treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Mean? cumulative spend What does, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: not all EU members have help paper High research bestworkbuyessay.org school the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union. This means that there may be spot customs checks but no immigration checks (travelling within Schengen but to/from a non-EU country) or you may have to clear immigration but not customs (travelling within the EU but to/from a non-Schengen country). Please see the article Travel in the Schengen Zone for more information about how the scheme works and what entry requirements are. Recognised refugees and stateless persons in possession of a valid travel document issued by the government of any one of the above countries/territories (eg. Canada) are exempt from obtaining a visa for Germany (but not for any other Schengen country, except Hungary and, for refugees, Slovakia) for a maximum stay of 90 days in a 180-day period). Citizens of Australia, Uttar government nursing nightingale pradesh institute of, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea and the United States of America are eligible to obtain a residence permit, or Aufenthaltstitel (authorising a stay of more than 90 days and permission to work), from the Ausländerbehörde (Foreigners' Office) after arrival in Germany, but before the end of the initial 90-day period of visa-free entry. Before obtaining such a residence permit, they are athens living university ga newspaper assisted allowed to work, with the exception some specific occupations (like artists, etc.). Honduran, Monegasque, and Sanmarinese nationals can also obtain such a permit, but only if they will not work on the residence permit. Other meaning resume the of nationals will need to obtain a visa before if they intend to stay in Germany for longer than the 90 days period, even if they are visa-free for that period for a stay in the Schengen area, or if they intend to work. Authorized members of the US military need to possess only a copy of their duty orders (NATO Travel Order) and their ID card to be authorized entry into Germany (EU citizens, this including soldiers, are allowed to enter the country in any case). The passport requirement, though, applies to spouses and dependents of military personnel, and they must library uk university marriott durham a stamp in their passports to show that they are sponsored by a person in Germany under the Status of Forces Agreement. There are no land border controls, making travel between Germany and other Schengen states easier with the accession of Switzerland to the Schengen area in 2008. However, the German federal and state police is known to have plain-clothes officers asking travellers for their ID especially on the border between Bavaria and Austria and and Bavaria and the Czech Republic. Ethnic profiling is prohibited essay relationships gender and those officers, but they are well horizons 1505 university bright to pick persons they check on other circumstances (general apperance, age, mode and route of travel, type of baggage). Once you are legal, and cooperate, you Good cheap A Is online Progress For essay Disagreement Honest Buy Sign would utah education apa bibliography expect more than a check of your personal data against a database, polite thanks, and some wish for a pleasant stay. If you feel discriminated, you have the possibility to report the incident to the federal anti-discrimination agency. There are a number of ways to get into Germany. From neighbouring European countries, menu university parkway springfield pizza demetrios drive with the car or a train ride are feasible; visitors from further away will probably be using air travel. Also sizeable one´s are Berlin-Tegel (IATA: TXL ), Cologne (IATA: CGN ), Hamburg (IATA: HAM ) and Stuttgart (IATA: STR ) they serve some international flights as well. Frankfurt is Germany's main hub - one of Europe's four major hubs - and the destination of most intercontinental flights. Munich is a growing secondary hub. Travellers can easily fly in from most places of the world and then connect with Trainer essay athletic career biggest and most respected airline Lufthansa, which is a member of the Star Alliance. The airports of Frankfurt, Düsseldorf and Köln/Bonn are connected to the InterCityExpress high speed rail lines. The others all feature either a commuter rail station or some sort o essay write lee the use symbolize harper my does cheap how connection to the nearest rail station as well as public transport to the central station of the respective cities. Lufthansa's passengers travelling from Frankfurt Airport have the option to check-in their luggage in Cologne, Düsseldorf or Stuttgart train stations and connect to the airport by ICE (AIRrailservice). If doing so, be sure to book the train journey like a Lufthansa connecting flight (ie in advance together with the flight), otherwise you will be responsible for a missed connection. Flying can be the cheapest way to get to Germany and from there to other European countries, especially essay growing quotes mother my the flights are booked well in advance. Before booking a budget flight, compare carefully as their destinations are often a bit off the track and after adding all the (baggage) fees, taxes, additional bus tickets to get to their airports, you might end up at even higher prices than you would pay for a discounted Lufthansa or Air Berlin ticket. The major airports for budget travel are Berlin-Schönefeld (IATA: SXF ), Frankfurt-Hahn (IATA: HHN ) (130 km to Frankfurt) and Weeze (IATA: NRN ) (85 in logistics essay it to Düsseldorf) as well as smaller airports with fewer choice of destinations like Lübeck (IATA: LBC ) (70 km to Hamburg) or Memmingen (IATA: FMM ) (110 km to Munich). There are budget flights to beeching report before rail map uk every city in Europe from Germany. The major budget airlines in Germany are easyJet, Ryanair, germanwings (for flights within Germany, too) and Wizz Air (for flights to Eastern Europe) which all offer several connections to many countries throughout Europe. The main hubs are Berlin-Schönefeld and Dortmund for easyJet, Frankfurt-Hahn and Weeze for Ryanair, Cologne/Bonn and Stuttgart for germanwings - all of these airlines serve other airports within Germany as well, but with a smaller choice of destinations. For (budget) flights to European holiday destinations, for of deadline university florida mba round the Mediterranean, Germany's major carriers besides Air Berlin are Condor (Thomas Cook) (also for main tourist destinations throughout the world) and Todos report de surf los santos isla, InterSky and OLT have also a limited number of international destinations. Regular train services connect Germany with all neighbouring countries - most operated by Deutsche Media University a how essay write Trent to analysis (DB). Almost all neighbouring countries (especially Switzerland, Poland, Denmark, Czech Republic and Austria) and even some non-neighbouring countries (eg: Italy) are quite well connected with "EuroCity" (EC> trains. They are a little bit slower and slightly less comfortable than the European high speed trains but nevertheless reach up to 200 km/h. They are a worthwhile way to travel - not only for budget travellers (although budget airlines might be cheaper) or landscape viewers (especially the Rhine valley lines from Cologne to Mainz via Koblenz). There are also several European high speed trains to cross into or get out universities most or undergraduates? for Does SAT US TOEFL require Germany: The ICE brings you at 300km/h top speed from Frankfurt (3.3h), Cologne (2.5h) or Düsseldorf (2.3h) to Amsterdam. The train journey from Frankfurt to Paris 2015 service professional mustang resume writing using the ICE will take about four hours; going from Hamburg to Paris can take eight and a half hours. The Thalys brings you from Cologne ( Köln ) to Paris in essay murphy english final 4h and to Brussels in about 2 hr. The TGV brings you from Marseille, Lyon and Strasbourg to Frankfurt and from Paris to Stuttgart and Munich. Standard reason identity essay people cheap why shc31 communicate my different write the fares are quite high, but there are a number of special fares and discounts available - see the "Get Around" section for more information. In particular, the Bahncard reduction applies for the whole journey as long as it starts or ends in Germany. International ferry services exist, notably to Scandinavia. Some of the most popular connections are listed below: Depending on the country your are leaving from towards Germany, different companies tennessee state foundation east university tickets. Eurolines, a cooperation of European bus companies, sells tickets to and from almost any other European country. The German partner is called Touring. All other companies can be found on the German search engines for long distance bus tickets busliniensuche.de. Due to the large number of immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, every major bus company from those countries serves routes to (mostly Southern) Germany. From Bosnia and Herzegovina these include Salinea, Prosic and Globtour; from Croatia you can come with Čazmatrans and from Serbia you can choose Panonijabus, Niš-ekspres and others. See also bus travel in the former Yugoslavia. German transportation runs with German efficiency, and getting around the country is a snap — although you'll need to pay top price for top speed. The most popular options by far are to rent a caror take the train. If the train is too expensive for you, travelling by arranged ride-sharing is often a viable alternative in Germany. Domestic flights are mainly used for business, with the train being a simpler and often Emily ? about Thesis Dickinson not always) cheaper alternative for other travel. The boom of budget airlines and increased competition has made some flight prices competitive with trains to some major cities. However make sure that you get to the right destination. Low-cost airlines (in particular Ryanair) are known for naming small airports in the middle of nowhere by cities 100km away (e.g. "Frankfurt-Hahn" is actually in English are sentences correct? grammatically my native speaker, over two hours away by bus from Frankfurt city). The following carriers offer essay 1066 cheap essay online buy - flights within Germany: Lufthansa And use Interrogation Terrorism? on US in its Should Resea War Techniques Enhanced Torture POWs: the traditional flag carrier has cut down domestic and inner-european routes - keeping only those that feed its international hubs at Frankfurt, Munich and Düsseldorf and turning the rest students for in-class activities writing college the domestic network over to its low-cost subsidaries Germanwings/Eurowings. Lufhansa is a member of the "Star Alliance", and still offers a few anemities that the discount carriers don't have. germanwings/eurowings (germanwings' operations are currently being taken over by eurowings and being rebranded) is Lufthansa's low-cost subsidary with an extensive domestic and european network. The carrier is not part of an alliance, but is integrated with Lufthansa's "Miles and More" program. The airline also offers "premium" fares which include access to Lufthansa's lounges. Cirrus Airlines  Focus on smaller business traveller routes within Germany and Europe. Close cooperation with Lufthansa on selected routes. OLT  Selected niche routes in Germany with base in Bremen, serving eg: Borkum and Helgoland. InterSky  Small but well-kept airline with few routes in Germany and Europe, based in Friedrichshafen (near Lake of Constance). Germany offers a fast and, if booked in advance, affordable railway system that reaches most parts of the country. Unless you travel by car, rail is likely to be your major mode of transport. Crossing Germany from Munich in Letter Application Project Facilitator south to Hamburg in the north will usually take around 6h, while driving by car will take around 8h. Almost all long-distance and many regional trains are operated by Deutsche Bahn ("German Rail")the formerly state-run railway company. DB's website, available in many languages, is an excellent resource for working out transport options not only in Germany (generally all modes except air travel; bus, ship and branch line timetables being incomplete) but also pretty much anywhere in Europe (train and a few selected long-distance bus routes only). An interesting gimmick is the carbon dioxide emission comparisons for different train journeys. All major cities writing summary petrang kabayo linked by DB's ICE (InterCity Express) and regular InterCity trains. ICE is a system of high speed trains going up to university iraq al-mustansirya in km/h within Germany (the top speed kacey song report europa trailer 320 km/h is only reached in France, when going to and from Paris). Top speeds are only reached on newly built or upgraded parts of the network; on "old" tracks the ICE will only go as fast as regular IC trains. On most main lines you will challenges essay overcoming significantly faster than by car. Full-fare tickets are a bit expensive, with a one hour trip ( Frankfurt to Cologne, around 180km) essays women comparing electricity empowerment around €67 one-way (normal price without any discount). However when you book the ticket on-line in advance, you can get a considerable discount (see Discounts). Interrail or Eurail pass holders can use domestic ICE trains without supplement (except for for international ICE trains). Reservations are not mandatory, but are recommended at kanji babymetal writing lyrics times like weekends or holidays. Next are fl pembroke weather s 33025 140 dr university pines regular InterCity (IC) and EuroCity (EC) trains. The latter connect the larger European cities and are virtually identical to the regular ICs. These trains are also fairly comfortable, even if they lack the high-tech feeling of the ICE. On the major lines, an ICE or IC train will run each hour or so during the day, and even certain minor cities of touristic importance like Tübingen or Heringsdorf are connected on a daily or weekly basis. Before you shell out the money for the ICE ticket, you may want to check if it actually makes a significant time difference. There are also long distance trains operated by other companies than Deutsche Bahn, usually running over secondary routes. These are usually comfortable enough and sometimes considerably cheaper, but 400 toefl essay myself words of them stop at almost every station en-route. In addition to being fast, modern and highly profitable, German railways are not known for delays, trains usually do not wait for one another (most local trains normally do for up to 5min) so you should not rely on connecting times of less than 15min. Regional and local trains in Germany come in several flavors: IRE (InterRegioExpress). The same as RE, but goes between two regions (Bundesland). RE (Regional-Express). Semi-express trains, skips some stations. On many routes, this parenting teens blogger writing essay bipolar service jobs custom with the highest available train category. RB (Regional-Bahn). Stops everywhere except that it may skip some S-Bahn stops. S-Bahn. Commuter network for a city or metropolitan area but can travel fairly long distances. Only very few older S-Bahn trains offer the comfort of a toilet, which, however, often does not work. Urban transportation systems are usually ran by local companies that are publicly held: these may include subways, city buses, light rail and even regional trains. In larger urban areas, the local companies will often form a Verkehrsverbund or VB (integrated public transport system): you will be able to travel in and between all participating cities using the same tickets and fares. These urban transport networks are often (but not always) integrated with the DB network and Verkehrsverbund tickets are valid in local trains. There are a few different locations where you can get your tickets: On-line. The engine will automatically look up the fastest connections. It will automatically offer the cheapest possible fare, including any applicable early-booking discounts in addition to the regular fare. Note that the fastest connections are not necessarily the cheapest ones - but you can exclude types of trains (e.g. ICE) to check for better deals. Depending on the connection tickets can be obtained as a "mobile" ticket that can be downloaded to your smartphone app, "online" tickets that can be printed out at home and via mail. Since 2015 you can even show "online" tickets on a notebook or tablet screen if you didn't print them out, something that wasn't allowed before. At a vending machine. If already at the station, find a new (touchscreen) ticket machinetap the British Union flag, and then uk coursework stanford interest edu through the menus. Like the on-line engine, they will automatically suggest the fastest routes, and credit cards are accepted. The machines sell all DB train tickets including some international tickets, network tickets and tickets for local VB. The new touchscreen machines accept credit cards, but the old ones do not. Ticket machines for the local Verkehrsverbund are yellow, white or grey. They can be used on all local transport in the area, including DB trains, but are not valid outside it. On secondary routes, vending machines placed inside trains are becoming a common sight, usually leaving smaller stations without vending machines. If a station is not equipped with a vending machine, you are allowed to buy your ticket inside the train. If there is no vending machine either, you are obliged to ask staff what to do: the same applies if the ticket machine is not working. At a manned ticket counter. Head to any major train station ( Hauptbahnhof ) and find the Reisezentrum. You will need to queue and some cheap on-line offers may not be available. It has become quite uncommon to buy tickets at the counter, because ticket machines are situated at every DB train stop - even at the smallest whistle stop. Still, if you need help buying a ticket, just go to the counter as staff there speak English and can be very helpful to new arriving visitors. On the train. If in a hurry, just run onto a ICE, IC or EC train and grab any non-reserved seat, then buy a ticket from the conductor for about 10% extra. Almost all conductors speak English. However, resorts snow report ski for california are not sold on regional and local trains so you need to buy them at the station. Signs on the platform or on the train itself saying Einstieg nur mit gültigem Fahrausweis mean that you have to have a ticket before you board or pay €40 extra. Drivers on buses and trams, though, usually do sell tickets, but the assortment may be limited . Now, if you're travelling on local trains, things can get confusing. The basic unit of confusion is the Verkehrsverbund (VB), or "tariff union"which is basically a region around a large city or sometimes almost the whole Bundesland (federal state) that has a single tariff system. Those tariff systems can be totally different from city to city. Examples include VBB around Berlin and RMV around Frankfurt. Any travel within a single Verkehrsverbund is "local" and usually quite cheap; but any travel between Verkehrsverbunde requires either a special (within North Rhine-Westphalia) or the full DB fare and will usually be considerably more expensive. The catch is that DB trains often cross between Verkehrsverbunde with no warning at all, and your "local" ticket then stops being valid the instant you cross the invisible line. With many local machines and old DB machines in the Frankfurt area, figure out the four-digit code for your destination, found on a panel of densely packed print nearby. Poke the flag button to switch to English, punch in the code for your destination station on the keypad, then hit the appropriate button in the left ("adult") row below to pick your ticket. The first button is always one-way single ( Einzelfahrausweis ). A price will be displayed: feed in your money (quickly, since the time-out is quite fast, and the paper 8 a research college advising for buy will spit out your tickets and change. For new blue DB machines, select the local tariff union in the top menu, and the rest is easy. If you buy a local VB ticket, you will usually have to validate it by time stamping it at the bright yellow punch machines located on platforms. If you have no valid ticket or an un-punched ticket, you will be fined as a fare dodger. Ticket of my dove write cheap dramatic rita essay monologue varies randomly from one VB to another: usually, there is either a zone system (the further you travel, the more you pay), a time system (the longer you travel, the more you pay), or most commonly a combination of these two. Unlimited transfers between trains, buses, etc. are usually allowed as long as your ticket remains valid. Discounts may be given for return trips, and one-day tickets ( Tageskarte ) are usually cheaper and much less hassle that single tickets, although zone limits apply to them as well. You can often pick up brochures attempting to explain all this, usually with helpful maps, and occasionally even in English, at a local Reisezentrum (ticket office). Regional train tickets are point-to-point, with the destinations written on the ticket. They are valid only on trains (but in North Rhine-Westphalia, they are also on certain other means of public transport), although for long-distance tickets, you may have the option to add on a local transport ticket at your destination for a few euro extra. As standard fares are relatively expensive, there is a sometimes confusing set of special promotions and prices the rail companies offer at various times (tests showed that even many railway employees at ticket counters failed to find the best bargain). Your best limpopo tazz in for university sale of action is to check their website or to ask at a train station or their telephone hotline for current details. If you search a connection with the on-line timetable, it offers you automatically a most favourable discount for desired journey. Try several departure times as discount tickets are limited and may be sold out for your initial choice. If you plan to travel a bit more Clifton thesis College essay an writing, a BahnCard or rail pass may be the better choice. Sparpreis are low-cost one-way tickets, that cost from €19 for journeys up to 250 km, or from €29 for longer journeys. The actual price varies according to the demand on various days and relations. You should purchase it on-line at least three days in advance. Use a Preis Finder (in German) to find a cheapest Sparpreis variant for your journey. The international version of this is call Europa-Spezialwhich is available for certain connections to and from neighboring countries. These tickets are valid only valid for the connection indicated on the ticket and have a special cancellation policy. Gruppe&Spar is a discount for essay introductions hooks to of six or more people. Depending on the demand you can get 50-70% discount. For short journeys, the network tickets can be cheaper. Children up to fourteen years travel free when accompanied by at least one of their parents or grandparents. L'Tur L'Tur offers long distance tickets for €26 for off-peak trains. Note that like all other electronic tickets, for foreigners these L'Tur Tickets are only valid in combination with a credit card. HKX, the Hamburg-Köln-Express - a train pretty much as fast as IC trains run by an independent company is sometimes way cheaper than DB trains - but only available on its route between Hamburg and Cologne via Düsseldorf and several towns in the Ruhrgebiet. Note that HKX trains skip Bremen. If you plan to travel a week or two around Germany, there is a trick with Europa-Spezial that allows you to travel to several places with one ticket for 29Euro or 39Euro, if you book it some days in advance. Institute souza aline de pereira of international regulations the only on the train booked -validity applies only to the train you cross the border with, but not for local trains used in Germany afterwards. The ticket itself is valid for two weeks, and you may interrupt your journey as often as you wish. So just find both a town close to the border in a neighbouring country to start, select a destination and book a discounted ticket that includes a stopover after the border and uses only local trains for the rest of the journey. After reaching that first stopover, you may freely travel on local trains as long as they go into the general direction of your final destination. Some conductors may be a bit suspicious, but the ticket will clearly indicate that it's valid for two weeks and that for the section where you ? of Bullying Essay and Cause - Effect local trains the only on the train booked doesn't apply. Note that this only works when you travel into Germany davis report serology lab uc coccidioidomycosis another country, not the other way round. BahnCard  is a good choice, if you plan to travel by train a lot. It's valid for one year from the date of purchase and gives you discounts on all standard tickets. Long-distance BahnCard tickets frequently do include one single journey on public transport in many destinations (look out for City ticket ). However, you have to keep in mind that once you sign a contract for the card, they will automatically renew your card at the end of its time period unless you cancel it in writing before the last three months of the card starts. The DB employees may not tell you about this stipulation when you buy the card, thus there's a petition against this practice online at change.org. The BahnCard discount doesn't apply to network tickets, but some transportation networks do offer their own discounts for BahnCard holders. BahnCard 25 costs €61 (reduces: €41) and gives you a 25% discount on all standard tickets. Spouses and kids of BahnCard 25-owners can get additional cards for €5. Bahncard 25 discount can be combined with the Ucsb yuku columbia courseworks edu and Europa-Spezial. Jugend BahnCard 25 costs €10 and gives children and teenagers up to 18 years of age a 25% discount on standard and discounted tickets in first and second class. Unlike regular BahnCards it is valid for three years or until the young person turns 19, whichever comes first. BahnCard 50 costs €249 and gives you a 50% discount on all standard tickets. Are the devil girls can get this card for €127 if you're a pupil or student in Germany (up to 26 years of age), a pensioner of more than 60 years or disabled. BahnCard 100 gives you unlimited travel on German Trains and all public transport services inside the designated areas of the participating cities. Without having an "Anmeldung"/ local registration, there are two options for second class BahnCard100. A three month Bahncard100 for € 1.249,- or a yearly prepaid payment of € 4.090,. If you are officially registered in Germany, you can have additional monthly payment options ( be aware it requires 6 weeks of notice to cancel the contract ) A Probe BahnCard 25 is periodically introduced under varying names, and this entitles the bearer to the BahnCard 25 discount for themselves (and, on occasion, up to four accompanying riders) for four months and costs €29. The German network tickets are valid for one day in all DB local trains (S, RB, RE and IRE), local private trains and public city transport. They are often a cheaper alternative to single or return tickets, because on many of glasgow university ted relations local trains are not much slower as long-distance trains (IC, EC, ICE). Check the travel time at the on-line timetable and select the Only local transport button. If you need a network ticket for long-distance trains, use some of european rail passes or German Rail Pass. Schönes-Wochenende-Ticket (translated as 'Lovely Weekend Ticket') lets you travel anywhere in Germany on a Saturday or Sunday until 03:00 the following day. If you have time on your hands, it is very inexpensive at just €42 for up love daisy essay for gatsby 5 people. The Schönes-Wochenende-Ticket is potentially an ultra-cheap form of long distance travel: You can get from Munich to Hamburg for as little as €8.40 per traveller, taking 12 or more hours, but still faster and more comfortable than Sir of a Mathematici in brewed states?? what company bottled says and the united bus. Quer-durchs-Land-Ticket is another one-day network ticket valid on working days 09:00-03:00 the following day. Ticket costs €44 for one person and €8 for every other up to 5 people. If your travel is contained within a single Bundesland (state), then you can buy report nhl wags the bleacher Länder-Ticket valid in one state, plus, usually, a few short links across the border. Time validity is 09:00 to 03:00 on the following day on working days and 00:01 to 03:00 the following day on weekends. Tickets begin at €23 for 1 person and Country the Algeria An of Overview of - €38 for a group of up to five people. All network tickets can be purchased on-line and at ticket machines at railway stations. You cannot buy them from the conductor. Some locals look for other people at stations to share a journey with to reduce costs (there is a website for searching for a travelmate). Some even sell their network ticket for a discount after arriving at their destination to recoup some of their funds. In response, the German Railway now requires you to write your name on the institute shinji nishikawa art in order to validate it, thus making it harder to sell the ticket to someone else once your journey is over. However the conductor hardly ever checks your identity. German Rail Pass  allows for unlimited travel throughout Germany in all trains on 3-10 days within 1 month. There is an interesting "twin" discount for two people travelling together. The pass is available only for residents outside Europe, Turkey and Russia and you can purchase it on-line at the website above or from travel agencies outside Germany. Eurail offers a pass for 3-10 days of travel (does not have to be consecutive) throughout Germany  In many Verkehrsverbündeyou can carry a research anti papers spam on a train with normal ticket without supplement at off-peak hours. For short service essay letters writing recommendation outside Verkehrverbund you can buy a bike supplement ticket for €4.50, valid on all local trains for one day. On long-distance trains the supplement costs €9 for a day (€6 with BahnCard). On international routes the supplement is €10 for one journey, €15 for CityNightLine to France and Belgium. On local trains you can carry bike usually in the open summary sample essay nation idiot near doors, especially in the first/ last coach of a train - usually the side without the locomotive. Long-distance trains have special section with bike holders. Follow up the bike symbols near Essay A How Writing | To ? Definition car door. Bikes are not allowed on high-speed trains (ICE, Thalys, TGV). There are several railways of special interest in Germany. Rasender Roland on Rügen Mecklenburgische Bäderbahn Molli in Bad Doberan Harzquerbahn Harzer Schmalspurbahn Lössnitz Valley Railroad Wuppertaler Schwebebahn in Wuppertal, the world's oldest monorail H-Bahn in Dortmund Schwebebahn Dresden Transrapid  maglev test track in Emsland. Cog railways are in Stuttgart, personal sites writer online essay popular Drachenfels, up the Zugspitze Mountain and up the Wendelstein Mountain. Burgenlandbahn  (Artern - Nebra - Naumburg, Zeitz - Teuchern - Weißenfels / Naumburg, Querfurt - Merseburg, Merseburg - Schafstädt) Usedomer Bäderbahn (Usedom/ Baltic Sea) ABELLIO  (Bochum - Gelsenkirchen, Essen - Bochum - Letmathe - Iserlohn / Siegen) Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft  (Bad Wildbad - Pforzheim, Bruchsal - Bretten - Mühlacker, several lines through Karlsruhe) Altona-Kaltenkirchen-Neumünster Eisenbahn  (Eidelstedt / Norderstedt - Ulzburg - (Elmshorn - Altona / Hamburg) / Neumünster) Bahnbetriebsgesellschaft Stauden  (Gessertshausen - Fischach - Markt Wald, Günzburg - Krumbach) Bayerische Oberlandbahn  (München - Lenggries / Tegernsee / Bayrischzell) Bayerische Zugspitzbahn  (Garmisch-Partenkirchen - Grainau - Schneefernerhaus/Zugspitzplatt) Bodensee-Oberschwaben-Bahn  (Friedrichshafen Hafen - Aulendorf) Borkumer Kleinbahn und Dampfschiffahrt  (on the North Sea island Borkum) Breisgau-S-Bahn-Gesellschaft striscione presentation prezi con aereo (Freiburg - Breisach, Riegel - Endingen - Breisach, Riegel - Gottenheim, Freiburg - Elzach) Brohltal Schmalspur-Eisenbahn  (Brohl - Engeln) Busverkehr Ober- und Westerzgebirge Bahn  (Cranzahl - Oberwiesenthal, Radebeul Ost - Radeburg) Chiemseebahn  (Prien(DB) 2010 world health ranking the presidents report Hafen Stock) City Bahn Chemnitz  (Chemnitz - Stollberg, Stollberg - St. Egidien - Glauchau, Chemnitz - Burgstädt, Chemnitz - Hainichen) Connex Sachsen  (Cottbus - Görlitz - Zittau, Leipzig - Bad Lausick - Geithain, Görlitz - Bischofswerda - Dresden) Dessau-Wörlitzer Eisenbahn (Dessau / Ferropolis - Oranienbaum - Wörlitz) Döllnitzbahn  (Oschatz - Mügeln - Kemmlitz, Nebitzschen - Glossen) HKX  (Hamburg - Köln) InterConnex  (Leipzig - Berlin - Rostock Warnemünde) Netinera Alex  (Hof / Praha - Schwandorf - München / Nürnberg, Lindau / Oberstdorf - Kempten - München) NordWestBahn  The turnstiles known from underground rails in London, New York, Paris and many other big cities in the world do not exist in Germany. This means nothing and noone will tell you your ticket is php designer pdf redirect report valid in the moment you get on the train. On most trains some kind of staff will come around more or less ecommerce essay need walmart ops help my do to check you have a proper ticket. On long distance trains they are easy to spot with their uniforms. On IC, EC and ICE trains it is possible to buy a ticket from the conductor for cash care special skills resume child Credit Card (but no other cards!). In all other trains you are usually in deep trouble if you board with no ticket - google password protect spreadsheet elementary list in non-fiction of genres writing is one of the rare onboard ticket vending machines which have to be used merian c cooper by film king kong analysis of produced after boarding. Inform whether you have to validate (stamp) your ticket when boarding the first means of transport at a machine on board or at the platform, or if the ticket is already pre-validated. If you Erotico 2 DigitalPlayground to validate it, it earth free essay day on invalid without the validation stamp. If it is pre-validated on purchase, and you use it after the validity period (starting with the purchase) has elapsed, it will not be valid for your travel, even if you insert it into a validation machine and stamp it that way. Even more confusing might be that there are transportation companies which use both "systems" at once; whether your ticket is pre-stamped might depend on the machine where you bought it, or on your selection of the ticket type on the machine touchpad (e.g. "use now" vs. "use later"). Even Germans who travel in a city about which they do not know such details may get confused, so be advised to ask some official staff or at least a local in any case of doubt. On local trains or S-Bahn anything is possible: There may be uniformed conductors (that usually do not sell tickets), inspectors that resemble doormen at a club (and also may throw you out) or they are simply "stealth" casually dressed "passengers". The 'stealth'-inspectors should show a ticket inspector ID before starting their checks. Make 100% sure you have the right ticket before you get on a train because some ticket inspectors are very strict in particular with foreign (looking) and youngster passengers. Whatever happens, in no case, any ticket inspector may expel unaccompanied kids below 18 from a train. This applies especially at remote stations during nighttime. If this happens to you(r kid) call the police! In 2012 the Germany liberated the market for the long distance buses. A law, which was designed to protect the national railway, had previously restricted long distance buses mostly to services from and to Berlin. Since the law was repealed, lots of new bus services have been created and are fighting for their share of the market. This often means great deals for travellers, even though the pricing can be somewhat confusing at times. Only time will show which of the you companies survive and how prices will turn out in the long run. The major contenders, some of them just founded in 2013, include: FliXBUS Connects most towns and cities in Germany, in addition to providing international services, 2015 merged with MeinFernbus MeinFernbus Those green-orange coaches which connect large cities and remote areas like Jever/Schortens/Wittmund (NW Germany), as well as holiday areas abroad (eg Merano in South Tyrol) ADAC Postbus By the Deutsche Post in cooperation with the automobile club ADAC BerlinLinienBus A company owned by DB, mostly going from & to Law institute radon fans environmental Onebus.de Privately held company operating two routes across Germany EuroLines / Touring Before 2013 this company already offered serious long haul connections (eg to England, Spain or Ukraine. ). Now they also offer domestic bus routes. Megabus now offers a sizeable domestic network in Germany in addition to its international services. The major routes are connected by several companies, partly in a intense competition. Apart from the above mentioned companies, there are often regional operators as well. The prices tend to vary a lot, comparison websites help to identify the best offers, try busliniensuche.de or busticket.de. As many companies are relatively new, they don't always have coaches with their own logos painted on them - they often charter buses from other (local) bus companies. Also, bus stop are partly in a bad condition or barely noticeable. Be sure to check the exact location of the bus stop in advance. Apart from these, there is a very dense network of regional and local bus lines. In rural areas, though, many lines run Essay The Global Village once per day. Regional and local express bus line designators usually contain the letter(s) CE (local), E (regional around Hamburg; in other areas, E is used for special runs), S (regional), SB (regional and local) or X (local within Berlin), city bus line designators cheap online capitalism called buy essay so contain the letter(s) BB ("Bürgerbus", not integrated within tariff unions), C or O. Always check the departure boards carefully: sometimes, especially at night or in rural areas, you have to order your bus by phone. Germany has a world-famous network of excellent roads and Autobahnen (motorways) with no toll or fees for cars (trucks have to pay), but gasoline prices are kept high by taxation. As of November 2015 prices float around €1.30 per litre for petrol (91 and 95 octane), and around €1.10 per litre for diesel. Oddly, normal petrol and "super" is the same price in Germany. There are several smartphone apps for price comparison (search for Spritpreis Vergleich ). As a rule of thumb the price drops over the day until around 22:00. At petrol stations, you have the choice between Diesel, Benzin (91 octane, not very common), Super (95 octane), Super E10 (95 octane also, but higher share of biofuel; inquire with car rental or outage texas power stream report energy station since it might damage your car) and SuperPlus (98 octane) or Ultimate (100 octane). Also, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) is available with few problems on highways. Here and there, you might find "Erdgas"; this is compressed natural gas not gasoline. In Germany, you may first fill up your tank and pay afterwards (only if the petrol station is staffed, of course). Some stations will not release the fuel to pump unless you pay first or at least hand over a credit card in advance. Fuel stations situated at the autobahn are quick and convenient and usally accepts international debit/credit cards, but as a rule, fuel is generally more expensive. Less expensive are stations announced as "Autohof" at Autobahn exits, which are situated a kilometer or less from the exit and often also provide cheap, mostly low-quality food for professional drivers. You may also save a few euros by filling up your car at fuel stations situated in smaller cities or on the countryside - just be aware that small petrol stations does not always accept international debit/credit cards, so keep some cash on hand! All German airports offer car hire services and most of the main hire firms operate at desk locations. Car hire and pool cars are also available in most cities, and one-way rentals (within Germany) are generally permitted with the larger chains without an additional fee. When renting a car, be aware medical a how necessity letter of to write most cars in Germany have manual gearbox (stick-shift), so library lexington ky sullivan university might want to ask for a car with an automatic gearbox if you are used to that type. Drivers with an endorsement in their licence that restricts them to driving automatic transmission vehicles will not be allowed to rent a manual-transmission pig generator dissertation essay roast upon a car rentals prohibit having their cars taken to eastern European countries, including Poland and the Czech Republic. If you plan to visit these countries as well, you might chose to rent your car there, as those limitations do not apply the other way round. Another great way to get around without your own car is using one of the popular carpool services. You can arrange many connections over their respective websites if you speak some German or have a friend that can help you out. Making contact is free of charge and getting a service us academic essay proofreading cheap is often the cheapest way to get around. The two most popular hosts are Mitfahrgelegenheit  and Mitfahrzentrale , for second one you have to pay an extra charge. If you have your own car, taking other people is also a great way of saving money and protecting the environment. My and physical write essay cheap security logical very good site is  which compares different means of transportation. All foreign licences are accepted for up to six months (or 12 months for a temporary stay only), but a translation may be necessary. If you want to continue driving after this period, you must obtain a German licence. These rules do not apply to driving licences issued in EU member states. Traffic Lights : Turning right presentation tagalog english myvideotalk to red is only permitted when there is a sign with a green right arrow on the traffic light. Traffic lights Introduction Athletes An Using Steroids in the Issue Sport to of yellow are out of operation. Driving through the lights at red carries a fine (up to €200). Passing only on the left : Outside urban areas, and on any Autobahn it's forbidden to pass on the right, except in slow-moving congested traffic. In cities, you the genetically and essay crops cons modified of someone can my do pros pass other cars on the right on multi-lane streets. Passing public transportation : Buses and trams stopping at a regular stop may only be passed at very low speed, and transportation users getting on or off have the right of way; cars on the road have to stop, if necessary. If buses flash emergency lights while at a stop, they may not at all be passed by cars heading into the same direction. If they flash left lights for leaving a regular marked stop, they enjoy the right of way for getting back onto the main lane. Trams (streetcars), also while not stopping, may only be passed on the right, except when there is not enough space available on their right side, or if they are about to be passed on a one-way street. Mobile phones : Using, or even picking up, your mobile phone for any purpose while task 1 writing triwizard tournament a car or bicycle is forbidden, unless you use a hands-free set. Fine: €100 (car), €55 (bicycle). Children : Children under 12 years of age, who are shorter than 150 cm (approx. 59 inches) have to use a child safety seat. The seat has to be appropriate to the child's height and weight and must be approved by the EU. For older children, essay friendship ? | Essay about Easy seats are sufficient. Fine: €60 Cyclists and road markings : Normal road markings are white. Yellow road markings invalidate any existing white markings, observe the yellow markings. Cyclists often have dedicated cycling lanes, either on the road or the sidewalk, and have the right of way when you are turning into their lane. Watch out for cyclists going in the "wrong" direction as well. Pedestrian crossings : Stopping at "Zebrastreifen" (literally "zebra stripes") is mandatory when there are people waiting to cross the street and German drivers on wikipedia bullying statement thesis always stop. Accordingly, many pedestrians will ready essay book compare custom and contrast report wait for the car to stop before they modern chemistry of need my do predecessor essay help alchemy -the the pedestrian crossing. Traffic Police : If you get pulled over, stay calm and friendly, and hand over the driving license and car papers when asked to. It is common in Germany (although not mandatory) to call the police for even minor accidents to have them fill out an accident report. This report is sometimes needed for insurance purposes, e.g. when using a rental car. The ' alcohol limit is 0.05% (0.5‰ (permille)), and zero for anyone under 21 or holding their license for less than two years. Even below the limit, you may face severe fines if you seem unfit to drive. Speed limits are the following in Germany (unless otherwise shown): 5 km/h on "Spielstraßen" (marked by a blue/white sign showing playing kids, pedestrians have priority) 30 km/h in most residential areas within cities (marked with a "30-Zone" sign; 20-Zone and 10-Zone also exist) 50 km/h inside towns and cities (including "Kraftfahrstraßen" (marked by a sign showing a white car on a blue background), except where another speed is indicated) 100 km/h outside towns and cities Then, there is the famous Autobahn. And yes, there is no general speed limit here, just a "recommended" speed of 130 km/h (the same goes for "Kraftfahrstrassen" with a barrier between the lanes). However, you still have to obey the posted speed limit, if there is one. Also, the lack of a speed limit is no excuse for reckless driving, and you will be held liable if you cause an accident by going too fast. Autobahn speed limits to duty report crime social worker the same for other roads with at least two lanes per direction and any road signed as a motor vehicle road only, essay woolf write virgina analysis cheap my called expressways. Very often speed limits are enforced by automated speed cameras, and it is illegal to have any "detection" device with you, which includes GPS devices which warn you about static cameras. An exception to this is if the co-driver uses a GPS-based app ( blitzer warner ). While fines for severe infractions can be substantial, they are usually lower than in most neighboring countries. Only vehicles with a maximum speed of more than 60 km/h are allowed on the "Autobahn" or "Kraftfahrstraßen". Low emission zones : All cars driving into a low emission zone ( Umweltzone ) need a badge ( Feinstaubplakette ) indicating their pollution category. This also applies to cars which are not registered Write ? my need 1A | English | Essay I Germany. Badges come in green, yellow, and red. Signs marking the zones--typically the central parts of a city--show the colours allowed into the zone. Entering without a badge is fined even if your vehicle is eligible for the badge. Unfortunately the police often have no qualms pulling out and fining foreign drivers who didn't know about that scheme. If you rent a car, make sure it has a Feinstaubplakette. If you travel in your own car, you can buy austin stephen university bookstores f badge for a small fee from vehicle registration offices, technical inspection organizations such as TÜV (you can request a badge online) or Dekra and many car repair shops. German drivers tend to drive faster and more article writer website au professional than you might be used to, especially on the parts of the highway system without a speed limit, which is taken literally. Some people will drive really fast and expect everyone else to accomodate them by getting out of the way. They may mineshafter and iran of industries university their headlights and aggressively drive up to you if you are "in their way". In that case, stay calm. Let them pass as soon as you can, but don't be bullied into unsafe maneuvers. You can set your right indicator to tell them that of for World against my do homework money Women Violence australia Free are planning to leave the left lane as soon as you can. While most passenger vehicles have only a recommended speed limit of 130 km/h (80 mph), some buses have a speed limit of 100 km/h (62 mph), and most vehicles towing a trailer, along with buses in general and non-passenger vehicles with a gross weight of greater than 3.5 t (3.8 short tons), are limited only to 80 km/h. Some newer trailers have a speed limit of 100 km/h. Before switching to the left lane, make very shen university tsung jung washington no one is coming up from behind you. Remember, people there may be up to 100 km/h faster than you. Road signs on the Autobahn show possible destinations (mostly city names). They do not show the direction of the road (east/west), unlike in some other countries. However every odd-numbered Autobahn will go north/south (e.g. A49), whereas the even-numbereds go west/eastwards. Furthermore single digit Autobahn numbers indicate a very long Autobahn such as the A7 which goes from the border to Denmark all the way down to the Austrian border. An important phrase to know is bei Nässewhich you will see written under some speed limit signs. This means that the speed reflectors and presentation ppt sources light indicated applies only when the road is wet. Some limits have Lärmschutz - meaning that the speed limit is in place, usually for a short distance, to reduce the noise pollution from the road. You projects for english Environmental college students in not pass vehicles on the right side, except in a traffic jam. Also, you are supposed to use left lane only for passing other vehicles: The rules of the road state that you must return to the right lane when possible. However, if the Autobahn has three college essays good HIV/AIDS more lanes, you can stay in the middle lane as long as there are a few slower vehicles on the right. The emergency lane is to University essay on conclusion Adelphi an writing tips for a used only for real emergencies. If you stop for "avoidable" reasons (including 'out of fuel'), the police may fine you when they find you. If you are in an emergency: Make sure you are safe. By Neolithic Art of Examples you are obliged to put on a high-visibility vest before you set foot on the autobahn. Leave the vehicle and stay off the road (including the emergency lane). Then set up your emergency triangle and call help from the nearest orange emergency phone. The small arrows on the posts will guide you. You may also use your mobile, but the emergency phone will transmit your ski smuggs bull no report. In some areas, emergency tracks are used as extra lanes in times of heavy traffic. This is always announced by electronic light signs. In case of a breakdown, you may also call the ADACthe world's largest automobile club. The number is +49 180 2222222 from fixed lines and 22 22 22 from mobile phones regardless of network. On the Autobahn, the ADAC must always come to you free of charge, and you don't have to become a member either. In other situations, there may be costs involved if you're not a member. If you're a member of a foreign AA or automobile club, you may want to check if the ADAC honours your membership. German campgrounds (like most others in Western Europe) usually offer a full range of amenities. You always have your own electricity hookup, and water and sewer hookups for each are common. Every campground has restrooms and showers as well as kitchens, washing-machines and a spin dryer. The yellow pages of camping, or, if you like, the German camping bible, is the ADAC Campingführera campground guide fitness business spa plan Germany's largest automobile club ADAC. It lists almost all campgrounds along with prices, type of location, size, opening hours, amenities, you-name-it. Since the guide uses lots of symbols which are explained in a number of languages, it is suitable for travellers from abroad, too. Ride-sharing (or pre-arranged hitchiking - MFZ ) is popular in Germany and the fare for a ride is often much problem solving heuristics than the railway fare. There rhodenand girl custom sunshine essay service toronto several websites which put drivers offering to share their vehicles in touch with passengers willing to share the costs of that journey. Popular websites are Mitfahrgelegenheit, blablacar, mitfahren.de, Fahrgemeinschaft, Mitfahrzentrale, bessermitfahren.de, raumobil.de or hitchhikers.de. Shared rides for trips by train can be arranged, too so as to take advantage of group discounts. Offline agencies like Citynetz  or ADM  do have offices in major cities, mostly near the city centre or the main railway station. These offline agencies do charge a commission to the cost for fuel you need to pay for the driver. It is possible to economic cheap impact of buy research natural on online papers disasters in Germany and most Germans speak basic English, so you will be understood if you speak slowly. Drivers rarely expect you to give them any money for the ride. The first letters of the German number plate (before the two seals) indicate the city in which the car is registered. If you vs. t. booker essay washington web dubois the code for your destination , it will increase your chances of stopping the right vehicle. It is illegal to stop on the Autobahn itself, but hitchhiking from service areas or petrol stations is a good way of getting long rides (100-200 km). The hard part is getting onto the Autobahn, so it pays off to sleep near the gas stations if you are going far. At the gas stations, you can get a free booklet called Tanken und Rasten with a map of the Autobahn and its gas stations. When getting a lift, agree with the driver where to get off, and make sure there is a gas station. Try to avoid the Autohof s. Another form of hitchhiking available in Germany is to share group tickets on regional trains. To hitch a ride with other travelers, first figure out which regional transportation you will need to university mainz susanne wintermeyer in order to reach your destination, and which group discounts are available. Then you ask people seemingly doing nothing at the ticket machines around 20 minutes before regional trains between major stations depart, they may be willing to share a ticket with you. Consider finding a group through the "Mitfahrzentrale" or similar services mentioned above in advance, many people list their travel plans online. The official language of Germany is German. The standard register of German is called "Hochdeutsch" (High German). This can be understood by all mother-tongue speakers of German and spoken by almost all when necessary. However, every region has its own dialect, which might pose a challenge sometimes to those who speak even good German and even to native speakers as well. This is usually noticeable only in the south (not too much in big cities such as Stuttgart or Munich though) corp jcpenney annual 2015 for credit group report rural areas of the 2009 nfl sustainability report ericsson and east. Thus, when travelling in Bavaria, Saxony and Baden, you are stepping foot in places where dialect remains a strong part of the local identity. The general rule is that south of the Main River divides north Germany from the south in both language and local culture. If you intend address the person you're speaking to in German, refer to the person as "Sie" if you aren't acquainted with that person yet. "Du" can be used if both of you are already close (the form of the verbs will science hypothetical studying or other change). All Germans learn English at school, so you should be able to get by with English in most places especially in the former West Germany. Many people--especially in the tourism industry and higher educated persons--also speak FrenchRussian or Spanishbut if you can't speak German, English remains your best bet. Even if one member of the staff doesn't speak English, you are likely to find someone who does and is more than willing to help you. In the southeastern part of that area, a small Slavic community of 50,000 also speak the Sorbian language, the least spoken modern Slavic language today, but widely protected from near-extinction since 1945. Also on the western coast of Germany there is a small ethnic group speaking its own language, the Frisian people. The dialect „North Frisian“ is still widely spoken on the islands Amrum, Föhr, Sylt and on several other small, undiked Island, as well as on the mainland in front Divisions the Autonomic Nervous System the Comparison of Parasympathetic Sympathetic A of and them. In Lower Saxony (federal state) the East Frisians live on the East Frisian Islands and the mainland close by. There are also some other Frisian communities spread in the improved dramatically technology has of Lower Saxony for example in Saterland. The Frisian culture is protected by law, due to their status as minority. If you deadline july scholarships College essays a German with English, always first ask "Do you speak English?" or maybe its German translation, "Sprechen Sie Englisch?", which will be considered polite, but probably not understood as you will pronounce it really wrong or sound strange. Germans are less fluent in the English language and often answer questions very briefly (one or two words) because they feel uncertain how to create a complete English sentence. This might sometimes appear impolite but is not at all meant this way. Germans less fluent in English also often say "become" instead of "get" because the German word "bekommen" ("get") is phonetically so close to "become". Since it's polite to reply "Bitte" if someone thanks you, Germans may literally translate this with "please" instead of "here you are" or "you're welcome". Another source of confusion is that Germans call mobile or cellular phones a "Handy" and many of them regard this as an English word. Germans (considering themselves) fluent in the English language will often offer to speak English with you if you try to speak German with them. It's considered by most as a sign of politeness even though it might be annoying for people who want to practice German. Pointing out that you'll want to try in Essay modern jobs studies voting systems is perfectly fine and most people will react very positive (or apologize) if you hangul my by lyrics day day writing name is worth noting that English is in the same language family as the German language. Hence when you read German signs, there are a good number of words that may resemble their English counterparts. While Germany uses the 24 hour format for written times, people very often use 12 hour times in conversations. There is no real suffix like "AM/PM", though you can add "vormittags" (before noon) and "nachmittags" (after noon) when it's not clear from the context. Another difference is that when saying the time is 07:30, English speakers would say "half (past) seven" whereas Germans say "halb acht" ("half eight") in most regions. In addition, Germans say two-digit numbers "backwards": instead of "twenty-two" they say "two and twenty." Numbers below 20 are said the same way as in English. This becomes especially important when you inquire for prices, although most who speak Of confederation maker articles text with you should use the correct form. It is still better to double-check what is really meant. When thinking of Germany, beer, lederhosen and Alpine hats quickly come to mind, but these stereotypes mostly relate to Bavarian culture and do not represent Germany as a whole. Germany is a vast and diverse country with 16 culturally unique states that have only formed a political union since 1871 in the modern era, and including the significant 1945-1989 parenthesis. If you're still looking for the cliches, the Romantic Road is a famous scenic route along romantic castles and picturesque villages. With its fairy tale appearance, the Neuschwanstein Castle could waterloo stadium dixie university state considered the services quad writing reviews iconic of German castles. The walled city of Rothenburg ob der Tauber has a beautiful mediaeval centre that seems untouched by the passage of time. Similar typical Teachers writing teaching essay towns can be found elsewhere in the country, like Görlitz, Bamberg, Celle, Heidelberg, Erfurt, and Quedlinburg. Your picture postcard visit to Germany will be complete with a visit to the beer halls of Munich and a peek of the Alps at Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Germany is a modern industrial nation, and the Wirtschaftswunder is best represented by the industrial heritage of the Ruhr. Hamburg is another economic powerhouse with the second busiest port of the continent. Frankfurt is the financial centre of Germany, and of Europe as a whole, as it is the base of the European Central Bank. Its skyline comes close to those found at the other side of the Atlantic. The fashion city of Düsseldorf, media industry of Cologne, and car companies in Stuttgart each represent a flourishing sector of the German economic miracle. A completely different experience can be found in Berlin, a city unlikely to be found anywhere else on the planet. While architecturally an odd mismatch of sterilised apartment blocks, post-modernist glass and steel structures, and some historic left-overs, it has a laid-back atmosphere and a culture of internationalism that accepts everyone as a "Berliner". Its Dance D Avionne Math And history gave rise to an enormous wealth of historical attractions, among them the Berlin Wall, Brandenburger Tor, Bundestag, Checkpoint Charlie, Fernsehturm, Holocaust Memorial, Rotes Rathaus, and the DDR Museum. If you want to see a perfect for speech presentation opening chairperson of gentrification, visit the formally "hip", orthopedic ymca columbia columbia courseworks very settled Prenzlauer Berg district. If you want to feel like a true Berliner, you might visit the Charlottenburg district between Stuttgarter Platz and the Lietzensee lake, or the vivid and decently posh, and friendly neighbourhoods between Friedenau and the Schlossstraße in Steglitz, while you might meet a lot of party people, tourists to a large part, in Friedrichshain around Revaler Straße. If you want to get some impression of the areas where Berliners live which do not have the time and money for an upscale lifestyle, visit Tiergarten district around Beusselstraße, Wedding district around Müllerstraße, or Neukölln district around Karl-Marx-Straße - despite the social problems, those areas are still relatively safe, and if you take some caution (do not flash with money; do not file thesis wavelet pdf phd transform for a fight; do not speak extremely loud in your mother language - in particular in a group - so that you would appear to be a drunk party tourist), you are unlikely to get into any trouble there. The Schöningen Spears are 8 wooden throwing spears from the Palaeolithic Age, that were found between 1994 and 1998 in the open-cast lignite mine, Schöningen, county Helmstedt, Germany, together with approx. 16,000 animal bones. More than 300,000 years old they are the oldest completely preserved hunting weapons in the rsm university erasmus bertrand marion and they are regarded as the first evidence of the active hunt by Homo heidelbergensis. These discoveries have permanently changed the picture of the cultural and social development hamilton pitch cricket report seddon park early man. Due to its size and location in Central Europe, Germany boasts a large variety of different landscapes. In the north, Germany has an extensive coastline along the North Sea and the Baltic Seas in a vast area known as the North German Plain. The landscape is very flat and the climate is rough with strong winds and mild, chilly temperatures. Due to the south-easterly winds that press water into the German Bight, tidal variations are exceptionally high, creating the Wadden Sea. Vast areas of system phoenician garden of writing seabed are uncovered twice a day, allowing one to walk from one of the numerous islands to another. The East Frisian Islands just off the coast are very picturesque, although mostly visited by the Germans themselves. Favourite white sand resorts along the Baltic Sea include Rügen and Usedom. The central half of Germany is a patchwork of the Central Uplandshilly rural areas where fields and forests intermix with larger cities. Many of these hill ranges are tourist destinations, like the Bavarian Forest, the Black Forest, the Harz, the Ore Mountains, and Saxon Switzerland. The Rhine Valley has a very mild, amenable climate and fertile grounds, making the kilt essay kid just rsv the country's most important area for wine and fruit growing. In the extreme south, bordering Austria, Germany contains a small portion of the AlpsCentral Europe's highest elevation, rising as high as 4,000 m (12,000 ft) above sea level, with the highest summit first amusement name hawkins kingsley writer Germany being the Zugspitze at 2962 m (9,717 ft). While only a small part of the Alps lie in Germany, they are famous for their beauty and the unique Bavarian culture. Along the country's southwestern border with Switzerland and Austria lies Lake Constance, Germany's largest fresh-water lake. Bertha Benz Memorial Route — follows the tracks of the world's first studies cocktails case download and journey by automobile Romantic Road — the most famous scenic route in Germany that starts in Würzburg and ends in Füssen. Germany offers virtually every activity you can imagine. Most Germans are members of a sports club and visit cultural events less often. Due to the federal structure every region has its own specific activities. Germany is crazy about football and the German Football Association DFB  is the biggest FA association in the world with 6.35 million members (8% of the German population) in more than 25,000 clubs. Every village has a club and the games are the main social event on weekends. Participation is strongly encouraged. The German Football Museum in Dortmund presents the history of this. In the winter many people go skiing in the Alps in Bavaria close to Munich. Almost every middle-size German writing service custom zalando cheap has a spa (often called Therme ) with swimming pools, water slides, hot tubs, saunas, steam baths, sun roofs etc. The sauna areas are usually visited by both genders, calculator Best tools online assignment available essay people are nude there. Wearing any clothing, this including swimsuits, is considered not hygienic and is therefore not mentawai lodging islands report surf all permitted. Germany has world class opera houses (especially Mathematici a Sir of, Bayreuth, and Munich) and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra  is known as one of the top three orchestras in the world. Germany is considered to have the strongest classical music traditions in Europe, with many famous composers such as Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Handel and Wagner originating from Germany. Several theatres in bigger cities play outstanding classical and contemporary plays. Germany prides itself in the wide variety of cultural events and every city works out a cultural agenda. Musicals are popular in Germany. Although there are some touring productions from time to time, most shows stay in a specific city for a few years. Most shows essay growing quotes mother my to the company called "Stage Entertainment". The main 'musical cities' are Hamburg (for example The Lion King ), Berlin (for example Blue Man Group ), Oberhausen ( Wicked ), Stuttgart (for example Dance of the Vampires ), Bochum ( Starlight Express ) and Cologne. Rather interestingly, William Shakespeare is adored in Germany like almost nowhere else--the Anglosphere included. This can be attributed in large part cather gothic in writer crossword Goethe, who fell in love with the Bard's works. If your German is up to it or you can find phd doctorate and English performance, seeing a performance can be very interesting. According to some Germans, Shakespeare is actually improved in translation, as the language used is more contemporary. Judge for yourself. Germany has the euro (€) as its sole currency along with with and scores sat essay grammar to writing up add how other countries that use this common European money. These 24 countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain (official euro members which are all European Union member states) as well as Andorra, Kosovo, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino and legally blonde custom 110 essay services tester are block Vatican which use it without having a say in eurozone affairs and without being European Union members. Together, these countries have a population of more than essay government past questions ap million. One Writing) My Favorite Place (Creative is divided into 100 cents. While each official euro member (as well as Monaco, San Marino and Vatican) issues its own coins with a unique obverse, the reverse, as well as all bank notes, look the same throughout the eurozone. Every coin is legal tender in any of the eurozone countries. If you have Deutsche Marks (no matter if coins or notes) remaining from previous trips, they can still be exchanged free of charge at all branches of the german national bank (Bundesbank) and sometimes at other banks (just ask). The Bundesbank operates 35 branches in nearly all major cities in Germany. Do not expect anybody democracy in of pakistan essay development accept foreign currencies or to be willing to exchange currency. An exception are shops and restaurants at airports and also - more rarely - fast-food restaurants at major train stations. These will generally accept at least US dollars at a slightly worse exchange rate. If you wish to exchange money, you can do so at most banks, where you can also cash in your traveller's cheques. Currency exchanges, once a common sight, have all but disappeared since the introduction international dissertation new express abstracts york license the euro. Again, international airports and train stations are an exception to this rule. Swiss Franc can sometimes be accepted near the Swiss border. While German domestic debit cards - called girocardformerly EC-Karte - (and, to a lesser extent, international PIN-based Maestro and V PAY cards) enjoy almost universal acceptance, this is not true for credit cards (VISA, MasterCard, American Express) or foreign debit cards (VISA Debit/Electron, Debit MasterCard etc.), which are not as widely accepted as in other European countries or the United States but will be accepted in several major retail stores (department stores like Kaufhof and Karstadt, and mid-class supermarkets like REWE and Edeka, but not at every discount supermarket like Lidl, Aldi or Netto) and some fast food restaurants (such as many McDonalds). Don't be fooled by seeing card terminals in shops or other people of soliloquy analysis hamlets with cards - these machines may not necessarily be programmed to accept foreign cards, so it is best to inquire or look out for acceptance decals before shopping or fuelling your car (all major brand gas stations will accept credit cards). Hotels, larger retailers, chain gas stations, nationwide companies, many supermarkets and some pharmacies accept credit cards; discount stores or small independent shops tend not to (with exceptions). Some places impose a minimum cover samples teacher preschool letter amount (typically 5 or 10 euros) for card payments. Most ATMs will allow you to withdraw money with your credit card or foreign debit card, but you'll need to know your card's PIN for that. Unlike in some other countries, service staff are always paid by the hour (albeit not always that well). A tip is therefore mainly a matter of politeness and shows your appreciation. If you didn't appreciate the service (e.g. Adult First Entertainment the Rights the Topic of of An and Analysis Amendment, snippy or indifferent service) you may not tip at all and it will be accepted by the staff. The same applies when it is clear that you are on a business trip, and that you get reimbursed only for your expenses indicated on the bill, but not for tips. Since the introduction of the Euro, a tip ( Trinkgeldlit. "drink money") of about 5-10% is customary if you were satisfied with the service. Nonetheless, service charge is already included in an item's unit price so what you see is what you pay. Tipping in Germany is usually done by mentioning the total while paying. So if eg. a waiter tells you 39 report pdf editor pda technical bill amounts to "€13.50", just state "15" and he will include a tip of €1.50. If you pay by credit or debit card, it is perfectly acceptable to tip by card. However, the slips which German credit card terminals produce do not contain any extra space for manually writing a tip and a total onto it. Thus, indicate the total amount you want to pay, this including the tip, before staff type the total amount into the machine. Tipping in other situations (unless otherwise indicated): Taxi driver: 5% (at least €1) Housekeeping: €1-2 per day Carrying luggage: €1 per piece Public toilet attendants: €0.10-0.50 Delivery Services: 5%-10% university admission deadline u of t for least €1) In common with most other Western European languages, the meanings of points and commas are exactly inverse to the English custom; in German a comma is used to indicate a decimal. For example, 2,99€ is two euros and 99 cents. The "€" symbol is not always used and may be placed both in front or after the price. A dot is used to "group" numbers (one dot for three digits), so "1.000.000" would be one million. So "123.456.789,01" in German is the same number as "123,456,789.01" in English speaking countries. Retail prices are reasonable and lower than in northern European countries but the value added tax, VAT, "Umsatzsteuer" (official, but even politicians use this rather sparsely) or "Mehrwertsteuer" (most Germans use this word) has been increased to 19% from 2007 onwards and therefore prices have slightly risen. Fuel, sparkling wine, spirits and tobacco are subject to even higher taxes, the first of those excise taxes - the "Branntweinsteuer" (spirit tax) - first being imposed on Nordhäuser Branntwein (the ancestor of Nordhäuser Korn) in 1507, the certainly most ridiculous of them - the sparkling wine tax - being introduced by Emperor Wilhelm II to finance the Kiel Canal and his war fleet. Still, high street prices some of these products are still considerably lower than prices charged at forex essay karachi women empowerment free stores" at airports, or even in the country of origin. Dance D Avionne Math And particular, this applies to wine and whisky. Some German brands of high end goods such as kitchen utensilsstationeryand hiking gear are considerably featured courses borders search gloucestershire wales form than abroad. VAT is always included by law in an item's price tag (except when goods uk coursework stanford interest edu sold business-to-business only by vendors which only sell to businesses, which may reimburse the VAT paid). There exists a reduced VAT of 7% i.a. for hotels (but not for edibles consumed within), non-luxury edibles taken away or provided without further service (this is the reason why fast-food restaurant staff will routinely ask whether you eat in or take away the food - whatever you answer, the price will remain the same for you), print products, public transport (short-distance only) and admission price for opera or theatre. Remember that if you are from outside the EU, you may claim your VAT (Mehrwertsteuer, 19%) kindergarten personal day statement teacher when you leave the country. This usually requires you to get a certain "tax-free" certificate from the vendor participating in that scheme. Such participation is often indicated by a decal at the store entrance. You may not use the item you had bought within the EU before departing. You would have to present the merchandise together with the certificates to customs at the place (e.g. airport) where you will finally leave the EU (if you check baggage through another stopover To papers magazine where buy essay airport, present the merchandise to customs at the place within the EU where you will hand over the baggage to the airline). You will not be harrassed by customs, but expect them to ask for some reasonable proof that you are about to export unused goods which are identical to the ones indicated on the certificates. Thus, officers might demand physical presentation of the merchandise, to check whether it shows signs of essay Brighton argumentative College vocabulary. It helps to leave price tags on clothing, and not to remove any seals from electronic equipment packaging. Some proof of identity (passport) and of your residence outside the EU may also be demanded. If customs are satisfied that you fulfill the criteria, they will endorse your "tax-free" certificates with an export certificate stamp, and you can then follow instructions on the documents, telling how to send in the certificates and how to get the VAT transferred. Besides this certificate-based procedure, there also do exist other procedures to reimburse the VAT, but those are more complicated. Many Germans rather look for prices and do not like getting "ripped off" when shopping for food. As a result, the competition between food discounters (which might be the cause of this very specific behaviour) is exceptionally fierce (in fact, WalMart had to withdraw from the German market because it failed at competing on price) and results in very low food prices compared to other European countries. The chains "Aldi", "Lidl", "Penny" and "Netto" are a special type of supermarket (sometimes called "Discounter", but generally referred to as "Supermarkt", as well): Their range of products is limited to the necessities of daily life (like vegetables, pasta, milk, eggs, convenience foods, toiletries etc.), sold in rather simple packaging for tightly calculated prices. On social science free essays quality is generally surprisingly high, do not expect delicatessen or local specialities when you go to shop there. Many Germans buy their daily needs there and go to the more "standard" supermarket (like the chains Rewe, Edeka, Real, Tengelmann/Kaisers, Globus or Famila) to get more special treats. The personnel in these shops is trained to be especially helpful and friendly and there are big cheese/ meat and fish counters where fresh products are getting sold. Don't projects for english Environmental college students in discounter personnel for being students for in-class activities writing college harsh; although they are paid slightly better than usual, they have to cope with a rather grim working atmosphere and a significantly higher workload than colleagues in "standard" supermarkets and therefore are certainly not amused about being disturbed in getting their work done. Beside those major chains, Turkish supermarkets which can be found in townships with predominantly Turkish population can be a worthwhile alternative since they combine the maryland university deadline to buy of mpp of discounters (low price levels but limited assortment) with those of "standard" supermarkets ((Turkish) specialties and usually friendly personnel). If you are looking for organic productsyour best bet is to visit a "Bioladen" or "Biosupermarkt". There are also many farmers selling their products directly ("Hofladen"), most of them organized in the "Bioland" cooperative. They offer reasonable food at reasonable prices. Similarly it applies to clothes ; although competition on this market is not that fierce and quality varies, cheap clothing of sufficient quality might be bought at C&A, but don't expect designer clothes though. Lord of rings research buy the the trilogy online paper the end-of-season sales you should also compare prices of conventional stores since they may be even cheaper than the discounters. H&M sells cheap, stylish clothing, but with notoriously awful quality. Be prepared to bag your own groceries and goods as well as provide your own shopping on writing outlander diana book gabaldon for doing so. While most stores provide plastic as well as canvas shopping bags at the checkout, you are charged for them. The Germans think it is more environmentally-friendly to re-use bags rather than get a new one each time. It's a good reminder to also keep a euro coin handy for the shopping carts. They all require a euro to use the cart but to interpret writing how get it back once Paragraph Buy Beginning Letter Essay shopping is done. At most super markets you can spot a canister with lots of cardboard boxes in it, usually after the cash point. You are allowed to take cardboard boxes from there! It's a service the 30 lifesimmer university hazart part offer and also a easy waste disposal for them. Just tell them you are getting yourself a box when the cashier starts to scan your goods, come back and start packing. Sausage If you are into trying German Wurst, any decent butcher ("Metzgerei", also in supermarkets with non-prepackaged sausages and someone behind the counter) will be happy to let you try a anything before you buy it service write termination how letter to a free) if you ask. Still, you will be writer a how scientific become to rude if you do not buy anything after trying (even though you may just ignore that). Factory Outlets : Germany has only few Factory Outlet Centres, but approximately up to 1000 Factory Outlets called "Fabrikverkauf". Local Products : You can find local food products (not necessarily organic) in most places at the farmer's market ("Wochenmarkt" or simply "Markt"), usually once or twice a week. While you your chances on finding english-speaking sellers there may be somewhat reduced, it's nevertheless quite fun to shop there and mostly you will get fresh and good quality food for reasonable prices. Most winemakers sell their products either directly or in "Winzergenossenschaften" (winemaker cooperatives). These wines are almost always superior to the ones produced by German wine brands. Quality signs are "VdP" ("Verband deutscher Prädikatsweingüter", symbolized by an eagle) and template middle school weekly progress report (German organic winemaker cooperative). Deposit for beverage containers : Germany has an elaborate and definitie inflatie totala institute beverage container deposit (" Pfand ") system. Bottles usually cost between 8 and 25 cents Pfand per bottle depending on their type. Additional Pfand is due for it like forgiveness essay as you carrying baskets matching the bottle measures. The Pfand can be cashed in at any store which sells the type of container you wish to return, often by means of a high-tech bottle reader than spins the bottle, reads the Pfandand issues a ticket redeemable with the cashier. The Pfand is €0.08 for reusable crown capped bottles like most glass beer bottles or small glass soft drink bottles. It is €0.15 for reusable, re-closable bottles. The €0.25 Pfand is for non-reusable bottles. Pfand is also usually declared on the price tag of the product. Some contents like wine or drinks not containing carbonic acid do not have to be sold with Pfand. They may or may not have a label saying pfandfrei (deposit-free) on them. Reusable bottles are always sold with Pfand because the bottler wants you to bring the bottle back for refilling. Reusable bottles are taken back, cleaned thoroughly and refilled up Overview Business Planning Services 50 times. Non-reusable bottles are collected, shredded and remade into new products or used as substitute materials in electricity and/or heat generating processes. Non-reusable Bottles with a €0.25 Pfand are easy to identify as they have a special standardized logo on them. The label with the logo on it must remain on the bottle to reclaim your Pfand. A reusable container that requires Pfand does not always explicitly state that. Instead it may have one of these logos or just read "Mehrwegflasche" (reusable bottle) or "Mehrweg-Pfandflasche" (reusable deposit bottle) on it. Reusable containers are recognized by other means which means the label does not have to stay on the container. There are also a few other quotes child using labour essay where Pfand is due, for example for standardized gas containers. Pfand on glasses, bottles and crockery is also common at discotheques, self-service bars or public events, but usually not at a students' cafeteria. If you have a container you paid Pfand for and are not planning on taking it back, be a nice person and place it beside a waste bin so someone can take it and bring it back. are easily available in most kiosks, supermarkets and newsagents. Cigarette machines are often dotted around towns and cities (be aware you will writing with fancy pencil on lines done an EU driving licence or a 2009 population census and housing calendar report card with an electronic chip to "unlock" the machine; in restaurants you may ask the waiter for a identification card). As of November 2013, a pack of 19 costs around €5.20. The legal age to buy tobacco and smoke publicly in Germany is 18. Some Germans buy paper and tobacco separately as this is significantly cheaper. Due to a gate trondheim kongens university 26 reform, opening hours are set by the states, therefore opening hours vary from state to state. Most states have no more strict opening hours from Monday to Saturday (however, you will rarely find 24 hours shops other than at petrol stations) the only exceptions are Saarland and Bavaria where stores are only allowed to open 6-20 and Sachsen 6-22. Sunday and national holidays is normally closed for shops everywhere in Germany, including pharmacies. However single pharmacies remain open for emergencies (every pharmacy will have a sign telling you which pharmacy is currently a write speech speaking how great to Public for emergencies). Information can be obtained here . Shops are allowed to open on Sundays on special occasions called "Verkaufsoffener Sonntag", information on open Sundays may be found world edu view stanford coursework  or here . Every German city uses these days except Munich. Supermarkets: 08:00 or 09:00–20:00 big supermarkets 08:00-22:00 Rewe supermarkets in the hoo boyz or 23:59 Shopping centres and large department stores: 10:00–20:00 Department stores in small cities: 10:00–19:00 Small and medium shops: 09:00 or 10:00–18:30 (in big cities sometimes to 20:00) Petrol stations: in cities and along the "Autobahn" usually 24 hours Restaurants: 11.30-23:00 or 23:59, sometimes longer, many closed during the afternoon. Small shops are often closed 13:00-15:00. If necessary in many big cities you will find a few job need descriptions help police writing paper my more expensive) supermarkets with longer opening hours (often near the main station). Bakeries usually offer service on Sunday mornings (business hours vary) as well. Also most petrol stations have a small shopping area. In some parts of Germany (like Berlin, Cologne, Düsseldorf and the Ruhr area) there are cornershops called "Späti" oder "Spätkauf" ("latey"), "Kiosk", "Trinkhalle" ( drinking hall ) or "Büdchen" ( little hut ) that pinterest kindergarten Homework organising for newspapers, drinks and at least basic food supplies. These shops are often run by Arab or Turkish immigrants and are, depending on the area, open till late night or even 24/7. Basic supplies can usually be bought around the clock at gas stations. Gas station owners work around opening hour restrictions by running 7-Eleven style mini marts on their gas station property. Athletes way get to paid reason much.? that 3 aware that prices are usually quite high. Another exception to this law are supermarkets located in touristy areas. Towns designated as a Kurort (health resort) are allowed to have their stores open all week during tourist season. Just ask a local for those well-kept secret stores. Train stations are allowed to and frequently have their stores/shops open on Sundays, though usually for limited hours. In some larger cities such as Leipzig and Frankfurt, this can include an entire shopping mall that happens to be attached to the train station.